The Hitchhiker’s Guide to Online Anonymity

(Or “How I learned to start worrying and love privacy”)

Version 0.5.2 (draft), January 2021 (work in progress, some parts are incomplete) by AnonymousPlanet.

This guide is open-source, licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (cc-by-4.0).

GitHub Repository at:

Feel free to submit issues using GitHub Issues at:

Feel free to discuss ideas using GitHub Discussions at:

Latest PDF version of this guide at:

Alternative password (weak password) protected PDF version of this guide at: (password is thgtoa)


TLDR for the whole guide: “A strange game. The only winning move is not to play.”1 (Super short: “stay offline”).

Making a social media account with a pseudonym or artist/brand name is easy. And it’s enough is most use cases to protect your identity as the next George Orwell. There are plenty of people using pseudonyms all over Facebook/Instagram/Twitter/LinkedIn/TikTok/Snapchat/Reddit/… But the vast majority of those are anything but anonymous and can easily be traced to their real identity by your local cops, random people within the OSINT2 (Open-Source Intelligence) community and trolls3 on 4chan4.

This is a good thing as most criminals/trolls are not really tech savvy and will be identified with ease. But this is also a bad thing as most political dissidents, human rights activists and whistleblowers can also be tracked rather easily.

This updated guide aims to provide introduction to various tracking techniques, id verification techniques and guidance to creating and maintaining reasonably anonymous identities online including social media accounts safely.

Will this guide help you protect yourself from the NSA, the FSB, Mark Zuckerberg or the Mossad if they’re out to find you? Probably not … Mossad will be doing “Mossad things” 5 and will probably find you no matter how hard you try to hide6.

You have to consider your threat model7 before going further.

(Illustration by, licensed under CC BY-NC 2.5)

Will this guide help you protect your privacy from OSINT researchers like Bellingcat8 , Doxing9 trolls on 4chan10 and others that have no access to the NSA toolbox? More likely. Tho I wouldn’t be so sure about 4chan.

It’s also important to understand this guide is the humble result of years of experience, learning and testing from a single individual (myself) and that many of those systems that aim to prevent anonymity are opaque proprietary closed-source systems. Most of those guidelines are guessed based on experience or based on referenced studies and recommendations by other people. These experiences take a lot of time and resources and are sometimes far from being scientific. Your mileage may vary (a lot).

You might think this guide has no legitimate use but there are many1112 such as:

This guide is written for those good intended individuals who might not be knowledgeable enough to consider the big picture of online anonymity and privacy.

This guide is not intended for:

If you go through with this long read including the many references, I believe you’ll understand most of the current online privacy and anonymity issues.

Feel free to report issues, recommend improvements or start a discussion on the GitHub repository if you want.

Remember to check the GitHub repository frequently for new versions of this guide too.

Use at your own risk. Anything in here is not legal advice and you should verify compliance with your local law before use (IANAL13).


Understanding some basics of how some information can lead back to you and how to mitigate those:

There are many ways you can be tracked besides browser cookies and ads, your e-mail and your phone number. And if you think only the Mossad or the NSA/FSB can find you, you would be terribly wrong.

Here is a non-exhaustive list of some of the many ways you could be tracked and de-anonymized:

Your IP address:

Your IP address16 is the most known and obvious way you can be tracked. That IP is the IP you’re using at the source. This is where you connect to the internet. That IP is usually provided by your ISP (Internet Service Provider) (xDSL, Mobile, Cable, Fiber, Cafe, Bar, Friend, Neighbor). Most countries have data retention regulations17 which mandates keeping logs of who is using what IP at a certain time/date for up to several years or indefinitely. Your ISP can tell a third party that you were using a specific IP at a specific date and time, years after the fact. If that IP (the origin one) leaks at any point for any reason, it can be used to track down you directly. In many countries, you won’t be able to have internet access without providing some form of identification to the provider (address, ID, real name, e-mail …).

Useless to say that most platforms (such as social networks) will also keep (sometimes indefinitely) the IP addresses you used to sign-up and sign-in to their services.

For those reasons, we’ll need to not use that origin IP (the one tied to your identification) or hide it as much as we can through a combination of various means:

All those will be explained later in this guide.

Your DNS requests:

DNS stands for “Domain Name System”20 and is a service used by your browser (and other apps) to find the IP addresses of a service. It’s pretty much a huge “contact list” (phone book for older people) that works like asking it a name and it returns the number to call. Except it returns an IP instead.

Every time your browser wants to access a certain service such as Google through Your Browser (Chrome or Firefox) will query a DNS service to find the IP addresses of the Google web servers.

Usually the DNS service is provided by your ISP and automatically configured by the network you’re connecting to. This DNS service could also be subject to data retention regulations or will just keep logs for other reasons (data collection for advertising purposes for instance). Therefore this ISP will be capable of telling everything you did online just by looking at those logs which can in turn be provided to an adversary. Conveniently this also the easiest way for many adversaries to apply censoring or parental control by using DNS blocking21. The provided DNS servers will give you a different address (than their real one) for some websites (like redirecting thepiratebay to some government website). Such blocking is widely applied worldwide for certain sites22.

Using a private DNS service or your own DNS service would mitigate these issues but the other problem is that most of those DNS requests are by default still sent in clear text (unencrypted) over the network. Even if you browse PornHub in an incognito Window, using HTTPS and using a private DNS service, chances are very high that your browser will send a clear text unencrypted DNS request to some DNS servers asking basically “So what’s the IP address of”.

Because it’s not encrypted, your ISP and/or any other adversary could still intercept (using a Man-in-the-middle attack23) your request will know and possibly log what your IP was looking for. The same ISP can also tamper with the DNS responses even if you’re using a private DNS. Rendering the use of a private DNS service useless.

As a bonus, many devices and apps will use hardcoded DNS servers bypassing any system setting you could set. This is for example the case with most (70%) Smart TVs and a large part (46%) of Game Consoles24. For these devices, you’ll have to force them25 to stop using their hardcoded DNS service which could make them stop working properly.

A solution to this is to use encrypted DNS using DoH (DNS over HTTPS26), DoT (DNS over TLS27) with a private DNS server (this can be self-hosted locally with a solution like pi-hole28, remotely hosted with a solution like or using the solutions provider by your VPN provider or the Tor network). This should prevent your ISP or some middle-man from snooping on your requests … except it might not.

Unfortunately the TLS protocol used in most HTTPS connections in most Browsers (Chrome/Brave among them) will leak the DNS again through SNI29 handshakes (this can be checked here at Cloudflare: ). As of the writing of this guide, only Firefox based browsers supports eSNI (encrypted SNI30 soon to be renamed ECH31 and soon to be supported by Firefox too32) which will encrypt everything end to end (in addition to using a secure private DNS over TLS/HTTPS) and will allow you to actually hide your DNS requests from a third party33. And this option is not enabled by default either so you’ll have to enable it yourself:

In addition to limited browser support, only Web Services and CDNs34 behind Cloudflare CDN support eSNI at this stage (and will support ECH in the future35).

This means that eSNI (or soon ECH) is not supported (as of January 2021) by many mainstream platforms:

Some countries like Russia36 and China37 will block eSNI handshakes at network level to allow snooping and prevent bypassing censorship. Meaning you won’t be able to establish an HTTPS connection with a service if you don’t allow them to see what it was.

Finally, even if you use a custom encrypted DNS server (DoS or DoT) with eSNI support, it might still not be enough as traffic analysis studies38 have shown it’s still possible to reliably fingerprint and block unwanted requests. Only DNS over Tor was able to demonstrate efficient DNS Privacy in recent studies but even that can still be defeated by other means (see Your “Anonymized” Tor/VPN traffic:).

One could also decide to use a Tor Hidden DNS Service or ODoH (Oblivious DNS over HTTPS39) to further increase privacy/anonymity but unfortunately, as far as I know, these services are only provided by Cloudflare as of this writing (, I [personally]{.ul} think these are viable and reasonably secure technical options but there is also a moral choice if you want to use them (despite the risk posed by some researchers40). Here is an illustration showing the current state of DNS privacy:

Therefore to mitigate all these issues (as much as possible), this guide we will later recommend a virtualized multi-layered solution of VPN over Tor which should mitigate “most of the issues”.

Your IMEI and IMSI (and by extension, your phone number):

The IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity41) and the IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity42) are unique numbers created by mobile phone manufacturers and mobile phone operators.

The IMEI is tied directly to the phone you’re using. This number is known and tracked by the mobile phone operators and known by the manufacturers. Every time your phone connects to the mobile network, it will register the IMEI on the network along the IMSI (if a SIM card is inserted but that’s not even needed). It’s also used by many applications (Banking apps abusing the phone permission on Android for instance43) and smartphone Operating Systems (Android/IOS) for identification of the device44. It is possible but difficult (and not illegal in many jurisdiction45) to change the IMEI on a phone but it’s probably easier and cheaper to just find and buy some old (working) Burner phone for a few Euros (this guide is for Germany remember) at a flea market or at some random small shop.

The IMSI is tied directly to the mobile subscription or pre-paid plan you’re using and is basically tied to your phone number by your mobile provider. The IMSI is hardcoded directly on the SIM card and cannot be changed. Remember that every time your phone connects to the mobile network, it will also register the IMSI on the network along the IMEI. Like the IMEI, the IMSI is also being used by some applications and smartphone Operating systems for identification and are being tracked. Some countries in the EU for instance maintain a database of IMEI/IMSI associations for easy querying by Law Enforcement.

Today, giving away your (real) phone number is basically the same or better than giving away your Social Security number/Passport ID/National ID.

The IMEI and IMSI can be traced back to you by at least 6 ways:

Here is also a good YouTube video on this topic: DEFCON Safe Mode - Cooper Quintin - Detecting Fake 4G Base Stations in Real Time

For these reasons, it’s crucial to get a dedicated burner phone with an IMEI that is not tied to you in any way (past or present). As well as it’s crucial to get an IMSI (sim card) that is not tied to you in any way. Both need to be bought in a safe place (ideally without CCTV), with cash and without bringing your real phone along. And last but not least due to the third reason mentioned above, it will also be crucial not to power on that burner phone ever (not even without the SIM card) in any geographical location that could lead to you (at your home/work for instance) and never ever at the same location as your other known smartphone (because that one has an IMEI/IMSI that will easily lead to you). This might seem like a big burden but it’s not really as these phones are only being used during the setup/sign-up process and for verification from time to time.

For additional safety (if you absolutely have to take your smartphone along with you or if you want to store your Burner phone), you could consider the use of a faraday cage54 bag to store your devices. There are many such faraday “signal blocking” bags available for sale and some of these have been studied55 for their effectiveness. If you can’t afford such bags, you can probably achieve a “decent result” with one or several sheets of aluminum foil (as shown in the previously linked study).

While there are some smartphones manufacturers like Purism with their Librem series56 who have your privacy in mind, they still do not allow IMEI randomization which I believe is a key anti-tracking feature that should be provided by such manufacturers. While this measure won’t prevent IMSI tracking within the SIM card, it would at least allow you to keep the same “burner phone” and only switch SIM cards instead of having to switch both for privacy.

Your Wi-Fi or Ethernet MAC address:

The MAC address57 is a unique identifier tied to your physical Network Interface (Wired Ethernet or WIFI) and could of course be used to track you if it’s not randomized. As it was the case with the IMEI, manufacturers of computers and network cards usually keep logs of their sales (usually including things like: Serial number, IMEI, Mac Addresses, …) and it’s possible again for them to track where and when the computer with the MAC address in question was sold and to whom. Even if you bought it with cash in a supermarket, the supermarket might still have CCTV (or a CCTV just outside that shop) and again the time/date of sale could be used to find out who was there using the Mobile Provider antenna logs at that time (IMEI/IMSI).

Operating Systems makers (Google/Microsoft/Apple) will also keep logs of devices and their MAC addresses in their logs for device identification (Find my device type services for example). Apple can tell that the MacBook with this specific MAC address was tied to a specific Apple Account before. Maybe yours before you decided to use the MacBook for sensitive activities. Maybe to a different user who sold it to you but remembers your e-mail/number from when the sale happened.

Your home router/WIFI access point keeps logs of devices that registered on the Wi-Fi and these can be accessed too to find out who’s been using your WIFI. Sometimes this can be done remotely (and silently) by the ISP depending if that router/Wi-Fi access point is being “managed” remotely by the ISP (which is often the case when they provide the router to their customers).

So it’s important again not to bring your phone along when/where you conduct sensitive activities. If you use your own laptop, then it’s crucial to hide that MAC address (and Bluetooth address) anywhere you use it and be extra careful not to leak any information. Thankfully many recent OSes now feature or allow the option to randomize MAC addresses (Android, IOS, Linux and Windows 10) with the notable exception of MacOS which doesn’t support this feature even in its latest Big Sur version.

Your Bluetooth MAC address:

Your Bluetooth MAC is like a MAC address except it’s for Bluetooth. Again it can be used to track you as manufacturers and operating system makers keep logs of such information. It could be tied to a sale place/time/date or accounts and then could be used to track you with such information, the shop billing information, the CCTV or the mobile antenna logs in correlation.

Operating systems have protections in place to randomize those addresses but are still subject to vulnerabilities58.

For this reason, and unless you really need those, you should just disable Bluetooth completely in the BIOS/UEFI settings if possible or in the Operating System otherwise.

On Windows, you will need to disable the Bluetooth device in the device manager itself to force a randomization of the address for next use and prevent tracking.

Your Operating Systems and Apps telemetry services:

Whether it’s Android, IOS, Windows, MacOS or even Ubuntu. Most popular Operating Systems now collect telemetry information by default. Some like Windows will not even allow disabling telemetry completely without some technical tweaks. This information collection can be extensive and include a staggering amount of details (metadata and data) on your devices and their usage.

Here are good overviews of what is being collected by those 5 popular OSes in their last versions:

Not only are Operating Systems gathering telemetry services but so are Apps themselves like Browsers, Mail Clients, and Social Networking Apps installed on your system.

It’s important to understand that this telemetry data can be tied to your device and also help de-anonymizing you and subsequently can be used against you by an adversary that would get access to this data.

Later in this guide, we will use all the means at our disposal to disable and block as much telemetry as possible to mitigate this attack vector in the Operating Systems supported in this guide.

The WIFIs and Bluetooth devices around you:

Geolocation is not only done by using mobile antennas triangulation. It’s also done using the WIFIs and Bluetooth devices around you. Operating systems makers like Google (Android61) and Apple (IOS62) maintain a convenient database of most WIFI access points, Bluetooth devices and their location. When your Android smartphone or IPhone is on (and not in Plane mode), it will scan passively (unless you specifically disable this feature in the settings) WIFI access points and Bluetooth devices around you and will be able to geolocate you with more precision than when using a GPS.

This allows them to provide accurate locations even when GPS is off but it also allows them to keep a convenient record of all Bluetooth devices all over the world. Which can then be accessed by them or third parties for tracking.

Note: If you have an Android smartphone, Google probably knows where it is no matter what you do. You can’t really trust the settings. The whole operating system is built by a company that wants your data. Remember that if it’s free then you are the product.

But that’s not all those WiFis access points can do. Recently developed techs could even allow someone to track your movements accurately just based on radio interferences. What this means is that it’s possible to track your movement inside a room/building based on the radio signals passing through. This might seem like a tinfoil hat conspiracy theory claim but here are the references63 with demonstrations showing this tech in action: and the video here:

You could therefore imagine many uses cases for such technologies like recording who enters specific buildings/offices (hotels, hospitals or embassies for instance) and then discover who meets who and where by tracking them from outside. Even if they have no smartphone on them.

Again such issue could only be mitigated by being in room/building that would act as a faraday cage.

As for the other issues, don’t take your smartphone with you where and when you are performing sensitive activities. Just don’t. Leave it at home. Or if you absolutely have to take it with you, make sure it’s powered off and consider the use of a good faraday bag to store it.

Your Metadata including your Geo-Location:

Your metadata is all the information about your activities without the actual content of those activities. For instance it’s like knowing you had a call from an oncologist before then calling your family and friends successively. You don’t know what was said during the conversation but you can guess what it was just from the “metadata”64.

This metadata will also often include your location that is being harvested by Smartphones, Operating Systems (Android65/IOS), Browsers, Apps, Websites. Odds are there are several companies knowing exactly where you are at any time66 because of your smartphone67.

This location data has been used in many judicial cases68 already as part of “geofence warrants” 69 that allows law enforcement to ask companies (such as Google/Apple) a list of all devices present at a certain location at a certain time.

Now let’s say you’re using a VPN to hide your IP. The social media platform knows you were active on that account on November 4^th^ from 8am to 1pm with that VPN IP. The VPN allegedly keeps no logs and can’t trace back that VPN IP to your IP. Your ISP however knows (or at least has the ability to know) you were connected to that same VPN provider on November 4^th^ from 7:30am to 2pm but doesn’t know what you were doing with it.

The question is: Is there someone somewhere that would possibly have both pieces of information available70 for correlation in a convenient database?

Have you heard of Edward Snowden71? Now is the time to google him and read his book72. I recommend reading about XKEYSCORE7374, MUSCULAR75 and PRISM76.

“We kill people based on Metadata”77

Your Smart devices in general:

You got it, your smartphone is an advanced spying device that:

All of this data is very likely being transmitted, processed and stored indefinitely (unencrypted78) by various third parties79.

But that’s not all, this section is not called “Smartphones” but “Smart devices” because it’s not only your smartphone spying on you. It’s also every other smart device you could have.

So when you’re going to conduct anonymous or sensitive activities somewhere. Do not take your smart devices with you. Just don’t and if you absolutely have to, make sure they’re powered off and consider the use of a faraday bag.

Your Devices can be tracked even when offline:

You’ve seen this in action/spy/Sci-Fi movies and shows, the protagonists always remove the battery of their phones to make sure it can’t be used. Well this is now true at least for some devices:

Such devices will continue to broadcast identity information to nearby devices even when offline using Bluetooth Low-Energy90. They don’t have access to the devices directly (which are not connected to the internet) but instead use BLE to find them through other nearby devices91.

They can now locate such devices and keep the location in some database that could then be used by third parties or themselves for various purposes.

For this reason, you should probably not to bring your smartphone with you (even turned off, unless you can remove the battery or are certain it’s completely powered off) when you conduct sensitive activities. But if you absolutely have to take such devices with you, then you should again consider the use of a faraday cage around such devices in addition to turning them off.

Your RFID enabled devices:

RFID stands for Radio-frequency identification92, it’s the technology used for instance for contactless payments and various identification systems. Of course your smartphone is among those devices and has RFID contactless payment capabilities through NFC93. As with everything else, such capabilities can be used for tracking by various actors.

But unfortunately this is not limited your smartphone and you also probably carry some amount of RFID enabled device with you all the time such as:

While all these cannot be used to de-anonymize you from a remote online adversary, they can be used to narrow down a search if your approximate location at a certain time is known. For instance, you can’t rule out that some stores will effectively scan (and log) all RFID chips passing through the door. They might be looking for their loyalty cards but are also logging others along the way. Such RFID tags could be traced to your identity and allow for de-anonymization.

More information over at Wikipedia: and

The only way to mitigate this problem is to have no RFID tags on you or to shield them again using a type of faraday cage. You could also use specialized wallets/pouches that specifically block RFID communications. Many of those are now made by well-known brands such as Samsonite94.

Your Files Properties/Metadata:

This can be obvious to many but not to all. Most files have metadata attached to them. A good example are pictures which store EXIF95 information which can contain a lot of information such as GPS coordinates, which camera/phone model took it and when it was taken precisely. While this information might not directly give out who you are, it could tell exactly where you were at a certain moment which could allow others to use different sources to find you (CCTV or other footage taken at the same place at the same time during a protest for instance). It’s important that you verify any file you would put on those platforms for any properties that might contain any information that might lead back to you.

Here is an example of EXIF data that could be on a picture:

For this reason you’ll always have to be very careful when uploading files using your anonymous identities and check the metadata of those files.

Even if you publish a simple text file, you should always double or triple check it for any information leakage before publishing. You’ll find some guidance about this in the Some additional measures against forensics: section at the end of the guide.



Pictures/Videos often contain visible watermarks indicating who’s the owner/creator but there are also invisible watermarks in various products aiming at identifying the viewer itself.

So if you’re a whistleblower and thinking about leaking some picture/audio/video file. Think twice. There are chances that those might contain invisible watermarking within them that would include information about you as a viewer. Such watermarks can be enabled with a simple switch in like Zoom (Video96 or Audio97) or with extensions98 for popular apps such as Adobe Premiere Pro. These can be inserted by various content management systems.

For a recent example where someone leaking a Zoom meeting recording was caught because it was watermarked:

Such watermarks can be inserted by various products99100101102 using Steganography103 and can resist compression104 and re-encoding105106.

These watermarks are not easily detectable and could allow identification of the source despite all efforts.

In addition to watermarks, the camera used for filming (and therefore the device used for filming) a video can also be identified using various techniques such as lens identification107 which could lead to de-anonymization.

Be extremely careful when publishing videos/pictures/audio files from known commercial platforms as they might contain such invisible watermarks in addition to details in the images themselves.

Printing Watermarking:

Did you know your printer is most likely spying on you too? Even if it’s not connected to any network? This is usually a known fact by many people in the IT community but few outside people.

Yes … Your printers can be used to de-anonymize you as well as explained by the EFF here

With this (old but still relevant) video explaining how from the EFF as well:

Basically many printers will print an invisible watermark allowing for identification of the printer on every printed page. There is no real way to mitigate this but to inform yourself on your printer and make sure it doesn’t print any invisible watermark. This is obviously important if you intend to print anonymously.

Here is an (old but still relevant) list of printers and brands who do not print such tracking dots provided by the EFF

Your Pixelized/Blurred Information:

Did you ever see a document with blurred text? Did you ever make fun of those movies/series where they “enhance” an image to recover seemingly impossible to read information.

Well there are actually techniques for recovering information from such documents, videos and pictures.

Here is for example an open-source project you could use yourself for recovering text from some blurred images yourself:

This is of course an open-source project available for all to use. But you can probably imagine that such techniques have probably been used before by other adversaries. These could be used to reveal blurred information from published documents that could then be used to de-anonymize you.

There are also tutorials for using such techniques using Photo Editing tools such as GIMP and I recommend for instance this interesting tutorial: followed by

Last but not least you’ll find plenty of deblurring resources here:

For this reason it’s always extremely important that you correctly redact and curate any document you might want to publish. Blurring is not enough and you should always completely blacken/remove any sensitive data to avoid any attempt at recovering data from any adversary.

Your “Anonymized” Tor/VPN traffic:

Tor and VPNs are not silver bullets. Many advanced techniques have been developed and studied to de-anonymize encrypted traffic over the years108. Most of those techniques are Correlation attacks that will correlate your network traffic in one way or another to logs or datasets. Here are some classic examples:

There are ways to mitigate these such as:

Be aware again that this might not be enough against a motivated global adversary111 with wide access to global mass surveillance (remember XKEYSCORE, MUSCULAR and PRISM). Such adversary might have access to logs no matter where you are and could use those to de-anonymize you.

I also strongly recommend reading this very good, complete and thorough guide on many Attack Vectors on Tor:

(In their defense, it should also be noted that Tor is not designed to protect against a Global adversary. For more information see and specifically, "Part 3. Design goals and assumptions.".)

Lastly, do remember that using Tor in itself can already be considered a suspicious activity112 and its use could be considered malicious by some113.

We will later propose a multi-layered approach over a combination of Tor and VPN as well as using public Wi-Fi over a known internet connection.

Your Crypto transactions:

Contrary to popular belief, Crypto transactions (such as Bitcoin and Ethereum) are not anonymous114. Most crypto currencies can be tracked accurately through various methods115.

The main issue is not setting up a random Crypto wallet to receive some currency behind a VPN/Tor address (at this point, the wallet is anonymous). The issue is mainly when you want to convert Fiat money (Euros, Dollars …) to Crypto and then when you want to cash in your Crypto. You’ll have few realistic options but to transfer those to an exchange (such as Coinbase/Kraken/Bitstamp/Binance). Those exchanges have known wallet addresses and will keep detailed logs (due to KYC116 financial regulations) and can then trace back those crypto transactions to you using the financial system.

There are some crypto currencies with privacy in mind like Monero but even those can be de-anonymized to some extent117118.

Even if you use Mixers or Tumblers (services that specialize in anonymizing crypto currencies by “mixing them”), keep in mind this is only obfuscation and not actual anonymity119.

Exploits in your apps and services:

So you’re using Tor Browser or Brave Browser with a Tor Tab. You could be using those over a VPN for added security. But you should keep in mind that there are exploits120 (hacks) that could be known by an adversary (but unknown to the App/Browser provider). Such exploits could be used to compromise your system and reveal details to de-anonymize you such as your IP address or other details.

A real use case of this technique was the Freedom Hosting121 case in 2013 where the FBI inserted malware122 using a Firefox browser exploit on a Tor website. This exploit allowed them to reveal details of some users. More recently, there was the notable SolarWinds123 hack that breached several US government institutions by inserting malware into an official software update server.

There are countless examples of malicious browser extensions, smartphone apps and various apps that have been infiltrated with malware over the years.

Here are some steps to mitigate this type of attack:

To reflect these recommendations, this guide will therefore later guide you in the use of Virtualization so that even if your Browser/Apps get compromised by a skilled adversary, that adversary will find himself stuck in a sandbox124 without being able to access identifying information or compromise your system.

Your CPU:

All modern CPUs125 are now integrating hidden management platforms such as the now infamous Intel Management Engine126 and the AMD Platform Security Processor127.

Those management platforms are basically small operating systems running directly on your CPU as long as they have power. These systems have full access to your computer’s network and could be accessed by an adversary to de-anonymize you in various ways (using direct access or using malware for instance) as shown in this enlightening videos: BlackHat, How to Hack a Turned-Off Computer, or Running Unsigned Code in Intel Management Engine

These have already been affected by several security vulnerabilities in the past128 that allowed malware to gain control of target systems. These are also accused by many privacy actors including the EFF and Libreboot of being a backdoor into any system129.

There are some not so easy ways130 to disable the Intel IME on some CPUs and you should do so if you can. For some AMD laptops, you can disable it within the BIOS settings by disabling PSP.

If you’re feeling a bit more adventurous, you could install your own BIOS using Libreboot131 if your laptop supports it.

We will try to mitigate this issue in this guide by recommending the use of virtual machines on a dedicated anonymous laptop for your sensitive activities that will only be used from an anonymous public network.

In addition, I would strongly recommend AMD over Intel as they did listen to the demand for the ability to disable AMD PSP.

Malicious/Rogue Wi-Fi Access Points:

These have been used since at least since 2008 using an attack called “Jasager”132 and can be done by anyone using self-built tools or using commercially available devices such as Wi-Fi Pineapple133.

Here are some videos explaining more about the topic:

These devices can fit in a small bag and can take over the Wi-Fi environment of any place within their range. For instance a Bar/Restaurant/Café/Hotel Lobby. These devices can force Wi-Fi clients to disconnect from their current Wi-Fi (using de-authentication, disassociation attacks134) while spoofing the normal Wi-Fi networks at the same location. They will continue to perform this attack until your computer or yourself decides to try to connect to the rogue AP.

These devices can then mimic a captive portal135 with the exact same layout as the Wi-Fi you’re trying to access (for instance an Airport Wi-Fi registration portal). Or they could just give you open access internet that they’ll themselves get from the same place.

Once you’re connected through the Rogue AP, this AP will be able to execute various man-in-the-middle attacks to perform analysis on your traffic. These could be malicious redirections or just simple traffic sniffing. These can then easily identify any client that would for instance try to connect to a VPN server or to the Tor Network.

This can be useful when you know someone you want to de-anonymize is in a crowded place but you don’t know who. This would allow such an adversary to possibly fingerprint any website you visit despite the use of HTTPS, DoT, DoH, ODoH, VPN or Tor using traffic analysis as pointed above in the DNS section.

These can also be used to carefully craft and serve you advanced phishing webpages that would harvest your credentials or try to make you install a malicious certificate allowing them to see your encrypted traffic.

Malicious USB devices:

There are readily available commercial and cheap “badUSB” 136devices that can take deploy malware, log your typing, geolocate you, listen to you or gain control of your laptop just by plugging them in. Here are some examples that you can already buy yourself.

Such devices can be implanted anywhere (charging cable, mouse, keyboard, USB key …) by an adversary and can be used to track you or compromise your computer or smartphone. The most notable example of such attacks is probably Stuxnet137 in 2005.

While you could inspect an USB key physically, Scan it with various utilities, check the various components to see if they’re genuine, you will most likely never be able to discover complex malware embedded in genuine parts of a genuine USB key by a skilled adversary without advanced forensics equipment138.

To mitigate this, you should never trust such devices and plug them into sensitive equipment. If you use a charging device, you should consider the use of an USB data blocking device that will only allow charging but not any data transfer. Such data blocking devices are now readily available in many online shops. You should also consider disabling USB ports completely within the BIOS of your computer unless you need them (if you can).

Your Cloud backups/sync services:

All companies are advertising their use of end to end encryption (E2EE). This is true for almost every messaging app and website (HTTPS). Apple and Google are advertising their use of encryption on their Android devices and their IPhones.

But what about your backups? Those automated iCloud/google drive backups you have?

Well you should probably know that most of those backups are not fully end to end encrypted and will contain some of your information readily available for a third party. You will see their claims that data is encrypted at rest and safe from anyone … Except they usually do keep a key to access some of the data themselves. These keys are used for them indexing your content, recover your account, collecting various analytics.

There are specialized commercial forensics solutions available (Magnet Axiom139, Cellebrite Cloud140) that will help an adversary analyze your cloud data with ease.

Notable Examples:

Generally speaking, you should not trust cloud providers with your sensitive data and you should be wary of their privacy claims. In most cases they can access your data and provide it to a third party.

The only way to mitigate this is to encrypt yourself your data on your side and then only upload it to such service.

Your Digital Fingerprint and Footprint:

The digital fingerprint is the way you write141, the way you behave142. The way you click. The way you browse. The fonts you use on your browser143. Fingerprinting is being used to guess who someone is by the way that user is behaving. You might be using specific pedantic words or making specific spelling mistakes that could give you away using a simple Google search for similar features because you typed in a similar way on some Reddit post 5 years ago using a not so anonymous Reddit account.

Social Media platforms such as Facebook/Google can go a step further and can register your behavior in the browser itself. For instance they can register everything you type even if you don’t send it / save it. Think of when you write an e-mail in Gmail. It’s saved automatically as you type. They can register your clicks and cursor movements as well.

This technology is also widely used in CAPTCHAS144 services to verify that you are “human” and can be used to fingerprint a user.

Analysis algorithms could then be used to match these patterns with other users and match you to a different known user. It’s unclear if such data is used or not by Governments and Law Enforcements agencies but it might be in the future. And while this might only be used for advertising/marketing purposes now. It could and probably will be used for investigations in the short or mid-term future.

Your Clues about your Real Life and OSINT:

These are clues you might give over time that could point to your real identity. You might be talking to someone or posting on some board/forum/Reddit. In those posts you might over time leak some information about your real life. These might be memories, experiences or clues you shared that could then allow a motivated adversary to build a profile to narrow their search.

A real use and well-documented case of this was the arrest of the hacker Jeremy Hammond145 who shared over time several details about his past and was later discovered.

There are also a few cases involving OSINT at Bellingcat146.Have a look at their very informative toolkit here:

You can also view a very convenient list of available OSINT tools here

You should never ever share real personal experiences/details that could later lead to you using anonymous identities.

Your Browser and Device Fingerprints:

Your Browser and Device Fingerprints147 are set of properties/capabilities of your System/Browser. These are used on most websites for invisible user tracking but also to adapt the website user experience depending on their browser. For instance websites will be able to provide a “mobile experience” if you’re using a mobile browser or propose a specific language/geographic version depending on your fingerprint. Most of those techniques work with recent Browsers like Chromium148 based browsers (such as Chrome) or Firefox149 unless taking special measures.

You can find a lot of detailed information and publications about this on these resources:

Most of the time, those fingerprints will unfortunately be unique or nearly unique to your Browser/System. This means that even If you log out from a website and then log back in using a different username, your fingerprint might remain the same if you didn’t take precautionary measures.

An adversary could then use such fingerprints to track you across multiple services even if you have no account on any of them and are using ad blocking. These fingerprints could in turn be used to de-anonymize you if you keep the same fingerprint between services.

It should also be noted that while some browsers and extensions will offer fingerprint resistance, this resistance in itself can also be used to fingerprint you as explained here

This guide will mitigate these issues by mitigating, obfuscating and randomizing many of those fingerprinting identifiers by using Virtualization and also using by fingerprinting resistant Browsers.

Your Face, Biometrics and Pictures:

“Hell is other people”, even if you evade every methods listed above, you’re not out of the woods yet thanks to the widespread use of advanced Face recognition by everyone.

Companies like Facebook have used advanced face recognition for years150151 and have been using other means (Satellite imagery) to create maps of “people” around the world152.

If you are walking in a touristy place, you’ll most likely appear in someone’s selfie within minutes without knowing it. That person will then proceed to upload that selfie to various platforms (Twitter, Google Photos, Instagram, Facebook, Snapchat …). Those platforms will then apply face recognition algorithms to those pictures under the pretext of allowing better/easier tagging or to better organize your photo library. In addition to this, the same picture will provide a precise timestamp and in most cases geolocation of where it was taken. Even if the person doesn’t provide a timestamp and geolocation, it can still be guessed with other means153154.

Here are a few resources for even trying this yourself:

Even if you’re not looking at the camera, they can still figure out who you are155, make out your emotions156 and probably guess your political affiliation157.

Those platforms (Google/Facebook) already know who you are for a few reasons:

Governments already know who you are because they have your ID/Passport/Driving License pictures and often added biometrics (Fingerprints) in their database. Those same governments are integrating those technologies (often provided by private companies such as the Israeli AnyVision163) in their CCTV networks to look for “persons of interest”164. And some heavily surveilled states like China have implemented widespread use of Facial Recognition for various purposes165 including possibly identifying ethnic minorities166. A simple face recognition error by some algorithm can ruin your life167.

Apple is making FaceID mainstream and pushing its use it to log you in in various services including the Banking systems.

Same goes with fingerprint authentication being mainstreamed by many smartphone makers to authenticate yourself. A simple picture where your fingers appear can be used to de-anonymize you168.

We can safely imagine a near future where you won’t be able to create accounts or sign-in anywhere without providing unique biometrics (A good time to re-watch Gattaca169, Person of Interest170 and Minority Report171). And you can safely imagine how useful these large biometrics databases could be to some interested third parties.

In addition, all this information can also be used against you (if you are already de-anonymized) using deepfake172 by crafting false information (Pictures, Videos, Voice Recordings…) and have already been used for such purposes173.

At this time, there are a few steps174 you can use to mitigate (and only mitigate) face recognition when conducting sensitive activities where CCTV might be present:

(Note that if you intend to use these where advanced facial recognition systems have been installed, these measures could also flag as you as suspicious by themselves and trigger a human check)


Phishing176 is a type of attack where an adversary could try to extract information from you by pretending to be something/someone else.

A typical case is an adversary using a man-in-the-middle23 attack or a falsified e-mail/call to ask your credential for a service. This can be your e-mail or your financial services for example.

Such attacks can also be used to de-anonymize someone by tricking them into downloading malware or revealing personal information.

Here is a good video if you want to learn a bit more about phishing types: Black Hat, Ichthyology: Phishing as a Science

Local Data Leaks and Forensics:

Most of you have probably seen enough Crime dramas on Netflix or TV to know what forensics are. These are technicians (usually working for law enforcement) that will perform various analysis of evidence. This of course could include your smartphone or laptop.

While these might be done by an adversary when you already got “burned”, these might also be done randomly during a routine control or a border check. These unrelated checks might reveal secret information to adversaries that had no prior knowledge of such activities.

Forensics techniques are now very advanced and can reveal a staggering amount information from your devices even if they’re encrypted177. These techniques are widely used by law enforcement all over the world and should be considered.

Here are some recent resources you should read about your smartphone:

I also highly recommend that you read some documents from a forensics examiner perspective such as:

And last but not least here is this very instructive detailed paper on the current state of IOS/Android security from the John Hopkins University:

When it comes to your laptop, the forensics techniques are many and widespread. Many of those issues can be mitigated by using full disk encryption, virtualization and compartmentalization. This guide will later detail such threats and techniques to mitigate them.

No logging but logging anyway policies:

Many people have the idea that privacy oriented services such as VPN or E-Mail providers are safe due to their no logging policies or their encryption schemes. Unfortunately many of those same people forget that all those providers are legal commercial entities subject to the laws of the countries in which they operate.

Any of those providers can be forced to silently (without your knowing (using for example a court order with a gag order179 or a national security letter180) log your activity to de-anonymize you. There have been several recent examples of those:

Some providers have implemented the use of a Warrant Canary186 that would allow their users to find out if they have been compromised by such orders but this has not been tested yet as far as I know.

Last but not least, it’s now well known that some companies might be sponsored front-ends for some state adversaries (see the Crypto AG story187 and Omnisec story188).

For these reasons, it’s important that you don’t trust such providers for your privacy despite all their claims. In most cases, you will be the last person to know if any of your account was targeted by such orders and you might never know at all.

To mitigate this I will recommend the use of a cash-paid VPN provider over Tor to prevent the VPN service from knowing any identifiable information about you. I will also recommend the creation of anonymous e-mail accounts from this VPN over Tor connection to also prevent them from having any information despite their no logging policies.

Some Advanced targeted techniques:

There are many advanced techniques that can be used by skilled adversaries189 to bypass your security measures provided they already know where your devices are. Many of those techniques are detailed here (Air-Gap Research Page, Cyber-Security Research Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel) and include:

Here is also a good video from the same authors to explain those topics: Black Hat, The Air-Gap Jumpers

This guide will be of little help against such adversaries as these malwares could be implanted on the devices by a manufacturer or anyone in the middle or by anyone with physical access to the air-gapped computer but there are still some ways to mitigate such techniques:


If you still don’t think such information can be used by various actors to track you, you can see some statistics for yourself for some platforms and keep in mind those are only accounting for the lawful data requests and won’t count things like PRISM, MUSCULAR or XKEYSCORE explained earlier:

You might also enjoy taking a look at this service (Terms of Services, Didn’t Read) that will give you a good overview of the various ToS of many services.

General Preparations:

Picking your route:

Timing limitations:

Budget/Material limitations:


Adversaries (threats):

In all cases, you should read these two pages from the Whonix documentation that will give you in depth insight about your choices:

Steps for all routes:

Get a burner phone:

Skip this step if you have no intention of creating anonymous accounts on most mainstream platforms but just want anonymous browsing or if the platforms you will use allow registration without a phone number.

This is rather easy. Leave your smartphone off or power it off before leaving. Have some cash and go to some random flea market or small shop (ideally one without CCTV inside or outside and while avoiding being photographed/filmed) and just buy the cheapest phone you can find with cash and without providing any personal information. It only needs to be in working order.

Personally I would recommend getting an old “dumbphone” with a removable battery (old Nokia if your mobile networks still allows those to connect as some countries phased out 1G-2G completely). This is to avoid the automatic sending/gathering of any telemetry/diagnostic data on the phone itself. You should never connect that phone to any WIFI.

You should test that the phone is in working order before going to the next step. But I will repeat myself and state again that it’s really important that you leave your smartphone at home when going (or turn it off before leaving if you have to keep it) and that you test the phone at a random location that cannot be tracked back to you (and again, don’t do that in front of a CCTV, avoid cameras, be aware of your surroundings). No need for WIFI at this place either.

When you are certain the phone is in working order, disable Bluetooth then power it off (remove the battery if you can) and go back home and resume your normal activities. Go to the next step.

Get an anonymous pre-paid SIM card:

Skip this step if you have no intention of creating anonymous accounts on most platforms but just want anonymous browsing or if the platforms you will use allow registration without a phone number.

This is the hardest part of the whole guide and also its biggest weakness. It’s a SPOF (Single Point of Failure). The places where you can still buy prepaid SIM cards without ID registration are getting more and more limited due to various KYC type regulations193. But this is unfortunately a required step as you will NEED a reliable phone number to sign-up for many accounts.

There are many commercial services offering numbers to receive SMS messages online but those have basically no anonymity and can be of no help as most Social Media platforms place a limit on how many times a phone number can be used for registration. To this date, I do not know any reputable service that would offer this service and accept cash payments (by post for instance).

There are some forums and subreddits (like r/phoneverification/) where users will offer the service of receiving such SMS messages for you for a small fee (using PayPal or some crypto payment). Unfortunately these are full of scammer and very risky in terms of anonymity. This is mainly because again Bitcoin and crypto are mostly NOT anonymous and transactions can be traced and tracked back to you in various ways.

In the end, it’s probably just more convenient, cheaper and less risky to just get a pre-paid SIM card from one of the places who still sell them for cash without requiring ID registration. So here is a list of places where you can still get them at the moment:

You should be able to find a place that is “not too far” and just go there physically to buy some pre-paid cards and top-up vouchers with cash. Do verify that no law was passed before going that would make registration mandatory (in case the above wiki was not updated). Don’t forget to not have your smartphone with you or if you really have to, powered off before going at the point of sale. Try to avoid CCTV and cameras and don’t forget to buy a Top Up voucher with the SIM card (if it’s not a package) as most pre-paid cards will require a top-up before use.

Double-check that the mobile operators selling the pre-paid SIM cards will accept the SIM activation and top-up without any ID registration of any kind before going there. Ideally they should accept SIM activation and top-up from the country you reside in.

Personally, I would recommend GiffGaff in the UK as they’re “affordable”, do not require identification for activation and top-pup and will even allow you to change your number up to 2 times from their website. One GiffGaff prepaid SIM card will therefore grant you 3 numbers to use for your needs.

Power off the phone after activation/top-up and before going home. Do not ever power it on again unless you’re not at a place that can be used to reveal your identity and unless your smartphone is powered off before going to that “not your home” place.

Get an USB key:

Get at least one decent size USB key (at least 16GB).

Find some safe places with decent public WIFI:

You need to find safe places where you’ll be able to do your sensitive activities using some publicly accessible WIFI (without any account/ID registration, avoid CCTVs).

This can be anywhere that won’t be tied to you directly (your home/work) and where you can use the WIFI for a while without being bothered. But also a place where you can do this without being “noticed” by anyone.

If you think Starbucks is a good idea, you may reconsider:

Situational awareness is key and you should be constantly aware of your surroundings and avoid touristy places like it was plagued by Ebola. You want to avoid appearing on any picture/video of anyone while someone is taking a selfie, making a TikTok video or posting some travel picture on their Instagram. If you do, remember chances are high that those pictures will end up online (publicly or privately) with full metadata attached to them (time/date/geolocation) and your face. Remember these can and will be indexed by Facebook/Google/Yandex/Apple and probably all 3 letters agencies.

While this won’t be available yet to your local cops, it could be in the near future.

You will ideally need a set of 3-5 different places such as this to avoid using the same place twice. Several trips will be required over the weeks for the various steps in this guide.

The TAILS route:

This part of the guide will help you in setting up TAILS if one of the following is true:

TAILS194 stands for The Amnesic Incognito Live System. . It’s a bootable Live Operating System running from a USB key that is designed for leaving no traces and forcing all connections through the Tor network.

You pretty much insert the Tails USB key into your laptop, boot from it and you have a full operating system running with privacy and anonymity in mind. As soon as you shut down the computer, everything will be gone unless you saved it somewhere.

Tails is a very easy way to get going in no time with what you have and without much learning. It has extensive documentation and tutorials.

It does however have some drawbacks:

You should also read Tails Documentation, Warnings and limitations, before going further

Taking all this into account and the fact that their documentation is great, I’ll just redirect you towards their well-made and well-maintained tutorial: , pick your flavor and proceed.

When you’re done and have a working Tails on your laptop, go to the “Creating your anonymous online identities” Step much further in this guide.

Steps for all other routes:

Get a dedicated laptop for your sensitive activities:

Ideally, you should get a dedicated laptop that won’t be tied to you in any easy way (ideally paid with cash anonymously as previously mentioned for the phone and the SIM card). It’s recommended but not mandatory because this guide will help you harden your laptop as much as possible to prevent data leaks through various means. There will be several lines of defense standing between your online identities and yourself that should prevent most adversaries from de-anonymizing you besides state/global actors with considerable resources.

This laptop should ideally be a clean freshly installed Laptop (Running Windows, Linux or MacOS), clean of your normal day to day activities and offline (never connected to the network yet). In the case of a Windows laptop, and if you used it before such a clean install, it should also not be activated (re-installed without a product key).

This is to mitigate some future issues in case of online leaks (including telemetry from your OS or Apps) that could compromise any unique identifiers of the laptop while using it (MAC Address, Bluetooth Address, and Product key …). But also to avoid being tracked back if you need to dispose of the laptop.

If you used this laptop before for different purposes (like your day to day activities), all its hardware identifiers are probably known and registered by Microsoft or Apple. If later any of those identifiers is compromised (by malware, telemetry, exploits, human errors …) they could lead back to you.

The laptop should have at least 250GB of Disk Space at least 6GB of RAM and should be able to run a couple of Virtual Machines at the same time. It should have a working battery that lasts a few hours.

This laptop could have an HDD (7200rpm) or an SSD. Both possibilities have their perks and issues that will be detailed later.

All future online steps performed with this laptop should ideally be done from a safe network such as a Public Wi-Fi in a safe place. But several steps will have to be taken offline first.

Some laptop recommendations:

If you can afford it, you might consider getting a Purism Librem laptop ( or System76 laptops ( while using Coreboot195 (where Intel IME is disabled from factory).

In other cases, I would strongly recommend getting Business Laptops (meaning not consumer/gaming laptops) if you can. For instance some ThinkPad from Lenovo (my personal favorites). Here are lists of laptops currently supporting Libreboot and others where you can flash Coreboot yourself (that will allow you to disable Intel IME or AMD PSP):

This is because those business laptops usually offer better and more customizable security features with with longer support than most consumer laptops (Asus, MSI, Gigabyte, Acer…). The interesting features to look for are IMHO:

Bios/UEFI/Firmware Settings of your laptop:


These settings can be accessed through the boot menu of your laptop. Here is a good tutorial from HP explaining all the ways to access the BIOS on various computers:

Usually how to access it is pressing a specific key (F1, F2 or Del) at boot (before your OS).

Once you’re in there you’ll need to apply a few recommended settings:

Only enable those on a “need to use” basis and disable then again after use. This can help mitigate some attacks in case your laptop is seized while locked but still on OR if you had to shut it down rather quickly and someone took possession of it (this topic will be explained later in this guide).

About Secure boot:

So what is Secure Boot198? In short, it’s a UEFI security feature designed to prevent your computer from booting an operating system from which the bootloader was not signed by specific keys stored in the UEFI firmware of your laptop.

Basically when the Operating Systems (or the Bootloader199) supports it, you can store the keys of your bootloader in your UEFI firmware and this will prevent booting up any unauthorized Operating System (such as a live OS USB or anything similar).

Secure Boot settings are protected be the password you setup to access the BIOS/UEFI settings. If you have that password, you can disable Secure Boot and allow unsigned OSes to boot on your system. This can help mitigate some Evil-Maid attacks (explained later in this guide).

In most cases Secure Boot is disabled by default or is enabled but in “setup” mode which will allow any system to boot. In order for Secure Boot to work, your Operating System will have support it and then sign its bootloader and push those signing keys to your UEFI firmware. After that you’ll have to go to your BIOS/UEFI settings and save those pushed keys from your OS and change the Secure Boot from setup to user mode (or custom mode in some cases).

After doing that step, only the Operating Systems from which your UEFI firmware can verify the integrity of the bootloader will be able to boot.

Most laptops will have some default keys already stored in the secure boot settings. Usually those from the manufacturer itself or from some companies such as Microsoft. So this means that by default, it will always be possible to boot some USB disks even with secure boot. These includes Windows, Fedora, Ubuntu, Mint, Debian, CentOS, OpenSUSE, TAILS, Clonezilla and many others. Secure Boot is however not supported at all by QubesOS at this point.

In some laptops, you can manage those keys and remove the ones you don’t want with a “custom mode” to only authorize your own bootloader that you could sign yourself if you really want to.

So what is Secure Boot protecting you from? It will protect your laptop from booting unsigned bootloaders (by the OS provider) with for instance injected malware.

What is Secure Boot not protecting you from?

Additionally, there are number of attacks that could be possible against Secure Boot as explained (in depth) in these technical videos:

So it can be useful as an added measure against some adversaries but not all. Secure Boot in itself is not encrypting your hard drive. It’s an added layer but that’s it.

I recommend you keep it on if you can.


Take a moment to set a firmware password according to the tutorial here:

You should also enable firmware password reset protection (available from Catalina) according to the documentation here:

This feature will mitigate the possibility for some adversaries to use hardware hacks to disable/bypass your firmware password. Note that this will also prevent Apple themselves from accessing the firmware in case of repair.

Physically Tamper protect your laptop:

At some point you’ll inevitable leave this laptop alone somewhere. You won’t sleep with it and take it everywhere every single day. You should make it has hard as possible for anyone to tamper with it without you noticing it. This is mostly useful against some limited adversaries that won’t use a 5$ wrench against you6.

It’s important to know that it’s trivially easy for some specialists to install a key logger in your laptop, or to just make a clone copy of your hard drive that could later allow them to detect the presence of encrypted data in it using forensic techniques (more on that later).

Here is a good cheap method to make your laptop tamper proof using Nail Polish (with glitter) 200 (with pictures).

While this is a good cheap method, it could also raise suspicions as it’s quite “noticeable” and might just reveal that you “have something to hide”. So there are more subtle ways of achieving the same result. You could also for instance make a close macro photography of the back screws of your laptop or just use a very small amount of candle wax within one of the screws that could just look like usual dirt. You could then check for tampering by comparing the photographs of the screws with new ones. Their orientation might have changed a bit if your adversary wasn’t careful when tightening them exactly the same way they were before. Or the wax within the bottom of a screw head might have been damaged compared to before.

Same techniques can be used with USB ports where you could just put a tiny amount of candle wax within the plug that would be damaged by inserting an USB key in it.

Check the laptop for tampering before using on a regular basis.

The Whonix route:

Picking your Host OS (the OS installed on your laptop):

This route will make extensive use of Virtual Machines201, they’ll require a host OS to run the Virtualization software. You have 3 recommended choices in this part of the guide:

This guide will not really recommend using MacOS Big Sur nor M1 Macs as the host OS due to the “unblockable” telemetry202203 issues. Big Sur on M1 maintains a persistent, hardware-serial-number linked TLS connection to Apple (for APNS204, just like on all iOS devices) at all times when you are logged in, even if you don't use iCloud, App Store, iMessage, or FaceTime, and have all analytics turned off. There's no UI to disable this at the moment. This means that Apple possibly has the coarse location track log (due to geolocation of the client IP) for every M1 serial number. When you open the App Store app, that serial number is also sent, and associated with your Apple ID (email/phone) if you log in. Apple knows when you leave home, or arrive at the office, or travel to a different city, all with no Apple ID, no iCloud, and no location services.

In addition, changes are high that your Mac is or has been tied to an Apple account (at the time or purchase or after signing-in) and therefore its unique hardware identifiers could lead back to you in case of hardware identifiers leak.

Linux is also not necessarily the best choice for privacy depending on your threat model. This is because using Windows will allow us to use Plausible Deniability191 at the OS level. Windows is also unfortunately at the same time a privacy nightmare205 but is the only option for using OS wide plausible deniability. Windows telemetry and telemetry blocking is also widely documented which should mitigate many issues.

So what is Plausible Deniability? It’s the ability for you to cooperate with an adversary requesting access to your device/data without revealing your true secret.

A soft lawful adversary could ask for your encrypted laptop password. At first you could refuse to give out any password (using your “right to remain silent”, “right not to incriminate yourself”) but some countries are implementing laws206207 to exempt this from such rights (because terrorists and “think of the children”). In that case you might have to reveal the password or maybe face jail time in contempt of court. This is where plausible deniability will comes into play.

You could then reveal a password but that password will only give access to “plausible data” (a decoy OS). The forensics will be well aware that it’s possible for you to have hidden data but should not be able to prove this (if you do this right). You will have cooperated and the investigators will have access to something but not what you actually want to hide. Since the burden of proof should lie on their side, they will have no options but to believe you unless they have a proof that you have hidden data.

This feature can be used at the OS level (a plausible OS and a hidden OS) or at the files level where you will have an encrypted file container (similar to a zip file) where different files will be shown depending on the encryption password you use.

In the case of Windows, plausible deniability is also the reason you should ideally have Windows 10 Home (and not Pro). This is because Windows 10 Pro natively offers a full-disk encryption system (Bitlocker208) where Windows 10 Home offers no full-disk encryption at all. We will later use a third-party open-source software for encryption that will allow full-disk encryption on Windows 10 Home. This will give you a good (plausible) excuse to use this software. While using this software on Windows 10 Pro would be suspicious.

Unfortunately, encryption is not magic and there are some risks involved:

Threats with encryption:

The 5$ Wrench:

Remember that encryption with or without plausible deniability is not a silver bullet and will be of little use in case of torture6. As a matter a fact, depending on who your adversary would be (your threat model), it might be wise not to use Veracrypt (formerly TrueCrypt) at all as shown in this demonstration:

Plausible deniability is only effective against soft lawful adversaries that won’t resort to physical means.

Evil-Maid Attack:

Evil Maid Attacks209 are conducted when someone tampers with your laptop while you’re away. For install to clone your hard drive, install malware or a key logger. If they are able to clone your hard drive, they can compare one image of your hard drive at the time they took it while you were away with the hard drive when they seize it from you. If you used the laptop again in between, forensics examiners might be able to prove the existence of the hidden data by looking at the variations between the two images in what should be an empty/unused space. This could lead to strong evidence of the existence of a hidden data. If they install a key logger or malware within your laptop (software or hardware), they will be able to simply get the password from you for later use when they seize it. Such attacks can be done at your home, your hotel, a border crossing or anywhere you leave your devices unattended.

You can mitigate this attack by doing the following (as recommended earlier):

Cold-Boot Attack:

Cold Boot attacks210 are trickier than the Evil Maid Attack but can be part of an Evil Maid attack as it requires an adversary to come into possession of your laptop while you’re actively using your device or shortly afterward.

The idea is rather simple, as shown in this video211, an adversary could theoretically quickly boot your device on a special USB key that would copy the content of the RAM (the memory) of the device after you shut it down. If the USB ports are disabled or if they feel like they need more time, they could open it and “cool down” the memory using a spray or other chemicals (liquid nitrogen for instance) preventing the memory decaying. They could then be able to copy its content for analysis. This memory dump could contain the key to decrypt your device. We will later apply a few principles to mitigate these.

In the case of Plausible Deniability. There have been some forensics studies212 about technically proving the presence of the hidden data with a simple forensic examination (without a Cold Boot/Evil Maid Attack) but these have been contested by other studies213 and by the maintainer of Veracrypt214 so I wouldn’t worry too much about those yet.

The same measures used to mitigate Evil Maid attacks should be in place for Cold Boot attacks with some added ones:

About Sleep, Hibernation and Shutdown:

If you want the better security. You should shut down your laptop completely every time you leave it unattended or close the lid. This should clean and/or release the RAM and provide the best mitigations against cold boot attacks. However this can be a bit inconvenient as you’ll have to reboot completely and type in a ton of passwords into various apps. Restart various VMs and other apps. So instead you could also use hibernation instead. Since the whole disk is encrypted, hibernation in itself should not pose a large security risk but will still shutdown your laptop and clear the memory while allowing you to conveniently resume your work afterward. What you should never do it use the sleep features which will keep your computer on and the memory powered. This is an attack vector against evil-maid and cold-boot attacks discussed earlier. This is because your powered on memory holds the encryption keys to your disk (encrypted or not) and could then be accessed by a skilled adversary.

This guide will provide guidance later on how to enable hibernation on various host OSes if you don’t want to shut down every time.

Local Data Leaks (traces) and forensics examination:

As mentioned briefly earlier, these are data leaks and traces from your operating system and apps when you perform any activity on your computer. These mostly apply to encrypted file containers (with or without plausible deniability) than OS wide encryption. Such leaks are less “important” if your whole OS is encrypted (if you’re not compelled to reveal the password).

Let’s say for example you have a Veracrypt encrypted USB key with plausible deniability enabled. Depending on the password you use when mounting the USB key, it will open a decoy folder or the sensitive folder. Within those folders, you’ll have decoy documents/data within the decoy folder and sensitive documents/data within the sensitive folder.

In all cases, you’ll (most likely) open these folders with Windows Explorer, MacOS Finder or any other utility and do whatever you planned to do. Maybe you’ll edit a document within the sensitive folder. Maybe you’ll search a document within the folder. Maybe you’ll delete one or watch a sensitive video using VLC.

Well, all those Apps and your Operating System might keep logs and traces of that usage. This might include the full path of the folder/files/drives, the time those were accessed, temporary caches of those files, the “recent” lists in each apps, the file indexing system that could index the drive and even thumbnails that could be generated …

Here are some examples of such leaks:


Forensics could213216 use all those leaks221 to prove the existence of hidden data and defeat your attempts at using plausible deniability and to find out about your various sensitive activities.

It will be therefore important to apply various steps to prevent forensics from doing this by preventing and cleaning these leaks/traces and more importantly by using whole disk encryption, virtualization and compartmentalization.

Forensics cannot extract local data leaks from an OS they can’t access. And you will be able to clean most of those traces by wiping the drive or by securely erasing your virtual machines (which is not as easy as you think on SSD drives).

Some cleaning techniques will nevertheless be covered in the “Cover your Tracks” part of this guide at the very end.

Online Data Leaks:

Whether you’re using simple encryption or plausible deniability encryption. Even if you covered your tracks on the computer itself. There is still a risk of online data leaks that could reveal the presence of hidden data.

Telemetry is your enemy. As explained earlier in this guide, the telemetry of Operating Systems but also from Apps can send staggering amounts of private information online.

In the case of Windows, this data could for instance be used to prove the existence of a hidden OS / Volume on a computer and would be readily available at Microsoft. Therefore it’s critically important that you disable and block telemetry with all the means at your disposal. No matter what OS you’re using.


You should never conduct sensitive activities from a non-encrypted system. And even if it’s encrypted, you should probably never conduct sensitive activities from the Host OS itself. Instead you should use a VM to be able to efficiently isolate and compartmentalize your activities and prevent local data leaks.

If you have little to no knowledge of Linux or if you want to use OS wide plausible deniability, I would recommend going for Windows (or back to the TAILS route) for convenience. This guide will help you hardening it as much as possible to prevent leaks. This guide will also help you hardening MacOS and Linux as much as possible to prevent similar leaks.

If you have no interest for OS wide plausible deniability and feel like learning to use Linux, I would strongly recommend going for Linux or the Qubes route if your hardware allows it.

In all cases, the host OS should never be used to conduct sensitive activities directly. The host OS will only be used to connect to a public Wi-Fi Access Point. It will be left unused while you conduct sensitive activities and should ideally not be used for any of your day to day activities.

Linux Host OS:

As mentioned earlier, I do not recommend using your daily laptop for very sensitive activities. Or at least I do not recommending using your in-place OS for these. Doing that might result in unwanted data leaks that could be used to de-anonymize you. If you have a dedicated laptop for this, you should reinstall a fresh clean OS. If you don’t want to wipe your laptop and start over, you should consider the TAILS route or proceed at your own risks.

I also recommend that you do the initial installation completely offline to avoid any data leak.

Full disk encryption:

There are two possibilities here with Ubuntu:

For other distros, you’ll have to document yourself but it will likely be similar. Encryption during install is just much easier in the context of this guide.

Reject/Disable any telemetry:

Disable anything unnecessary:


As explained previously, you should not use the sleep features but shutdown or hibernate your laptop to mitigate some evil-maid and cold-boot attacks. Unfortunately this feature is disabled by default on many Linux distros including Ubuntu. It’s possible to enable it but it might not work as expected. Follow this information at your own risk. If you don’t want to do this, you should never use the sleep function and power off instead (and probably set the lid closing behavior to power off instead of sleep).

Follow this tutorial to enable Hibernate:

After Hibernate is enabled, change the behavior so that your laptop will hibernate when you close the lid by following this tutorial for Ubuntu 20.04 and this tutorial for Ubuntu 18.04

Unfortunately this will not clean the key from memory directly from memory when hibernating. To avoid this at the cost of some performance, you might consider encrypting the swap file by following this tutorial:

These settings should mitigate cold boot attacks if you can hibernate fast enough.

Enable MAC address randomization:

Setting up a safe Browser:

See Appendix H: Tor Browser

MacOS Host OS:

Note: At the moment, this guide will not work yet with new ARM M1 MacBooks. Due to Virtualbox not supporting this architecture yet. It could however be possible if you use commercial tools like VMWare or Parallels but those are not covered in this guide.

As mentioned earlier, I do not recommend using your daily laptop for very sensitive activities. Or at least I do not recommending using your in-place OS for these. Doing that might result in unwanted data leaks that could be used to de-anonymize you. If you have a dedicated laptop for this, you should reinstall a fresh clean OS. If you don’t want to wipe your laptop and start over, you should consider the TAILS route or proceed at your own risks.

I also recommend that you do the initial installation completely offline to avoid any data leak.

Do not ever sign in with your Apple account using this Mac.

Last but not least, due to the issues mentioned earlier about Big Sur and telemetry, I do not recommend using Big Sur for now and recommend instead staying on MacOS Catalina until the situation is “clarified”.

During the install:

Hardening MacOS:

For securing and hardening your MacOS, I recommend reading this GitHub guide which should cover many of the issues:

Here are the basic steps you should take after your offline installation:

Enable Firmware password with “disable-reset-capability” option:

First you should set-up a firmware password following this guide from Apple:

Unfortunately, some attacks are still possible and an adversary could disable this password so you should also follow this guide to prevent disabling the firmware password from anyone including Apple:

Enable Hibernation instead of sleep:

Again this is to prevent some cold-boot and evil-maid attacks by powering down your RAM and cleaning the encryption key when you close the lid. You should always either hibernate or shutdown. On MacOS, the hibernate feature even has a special option to specifically clear the encryption key from memory when hibernating (while you might have to wait for the memory to decay on other Operating Systems). Once again there are no easy options to do this within the Settings so instead we’ll have to do this by running a few commands to enable hibernation:

Now when you close the lid of your MacBook, it should hibernate instead of sleep and mitigate attempts at performing cold-boot attacks.

In addition, you should also setup an automatic sleep (Settings > Energy) to that your MacBook will hibernate automatically if left unattended.

Disable unnecessary services:

Disable some unnecessary settings within the settings:

Prevent Apple OCSP calls:

These are the infamous “unblockable telemetry” calls from MacOS Big Sur disclosed here:

You could block OCSP reporting by issuing the following command in Terminal:

But you should probably document yourself on the actual issue before acting. This page is a good place to start:

Up to you really. I would block it because I do not want any telemetry at all from my OS to the mothership without my specific consent. None.

Enable Full Disk encryption (Filevault):

You should enable full disk encryption on your Mac using Filevault according to this part of the guide:

Be careful when enabling. Do not store the recovery key at Apple if prompted (shouldn’t be an issue since you should be offline at this stage).

MAC Address Randomization:

Unfortunately MacOS does not offer a native convenient way of randomizing your MAC Address and so you’ll have to do this manually. This will be reset at each reboot and you’ll have to re-do it each time to ensure you do not use your actual MAC Address when connecting to various Wi-Fis

You can do by issuing the following commands in terminal (without the parentheses):

Setting up a safe Browser:

See Appendix H: Tor Browser

Windows Host OS:

As mentioned earlier, I do not recommend using your daily laptop for very sensitive activities. Or at least I do not recommending using your in-place OS for these. Doing that might result in unwanted data leaks that could be used to de-anonymize you. If you have a dedicated laptop for this, you should reinstall a fresh clean OS. If you don’t want to wipe your laptop and start over, you should consider the TAILS route or proceed at your own risks.

I also recommend that you do the initial installation completely offline to avoid any data leak.


You should follow Appendix A: Windows Installation

Enable MAC address randomization:

You should randomize your MAC address as explained earlier in this guide:

Go into Settings > Network & Internet > Wi-Fi > Enable Random hardware addresses

Setting up a safe Browser:

See Appendix H: Tor Browser

Enable some additional privacy settings on your Host OS:

See Appendix B: Windows Additional Privacy Settings

Windows Host OS encryption:

Veracrypt222 is the software I will recommend for full disk encryption, file encryption and plausible deniability. It is a fork of the well-known but deprecated and unmaintained TrueCrypt. It can be used for

It is to my knowledge the only (convenient and usable by anyone) free, open-source and openly audited223 encryption software that also provides plausible deniability for general use and it works with Windows Home Edition.

You might be wondering why not BitLocker? Well here are a few reasons I prefer Veracrypt:

If you decide to use Bitlocker anyway, feel free to do so.

Go ahead and download and install Veracrypt from:

After installation, please take a moment to review the following options that will help mitigate some attacks:

If you do not want to use encrypted memory (because performance might be an issue), you should at least enable hibernation instead of sleep. This will not clear the keys from memory (you are still vulnerable to cold boot attacks) but at least should mitigate them somewhat if your memory has enough time to decay.

Enable Hibernation (optional):

Again as explained earlier. You should never use the sleep feature to mitigate some cold-boot and evil-maid attacks. Instead you should Shut down or hibernate. You should therefore switch your laptop for sleeping to hibernating when closing the lid or when your laptop goes to sleep.

The reason is that Hibernation will actually shut down your laptop completely and clean the memory. Sleep on the other hand will leave the memory powered on (including your decryption key) and could leave your laptop vulnerable to cold-boot attacks.

By default, Windows 10 might not offer you this possibility so you should enable it by following this Microsoft tutorial:

After that you should go into your power settings:

Deciding which sub-route you’ll take:

Now you’ll have to pick your next step between two options:

As you can see, Route C really only offers two privacy advantages over the others and it will only be of use against a soft lawful adversary.

Deciding which route you’ll take is up to you. Route A is a minimum.

Always be sure to check for new versions of Veracrypt frequently to ensure you benefit from the latest patches. Especially check this before applying large Windows updates that might break the Veracrypt bootloader and send you into a boot loop.

NOTE THAT BY DEFAULT VERACRYPT WILL ALWAYS PROPOSE A SYSTEM PASSWORD IN QWERTY (display the password as a test). This can cause issues if your boot input is actually using your laptop’s keyboard (AZERTY for example) as you’ll have setup your password in QWERTY and will input it at boot time in AZERTY. So make sure you check when doing the test boot what keyboard layout your BIOS is using. You could fail to log-in just because the QWERTY/AZERTY mix-up. If your BIOS boots using AZERTY, you will need to type the password in QWERTY within Veracrypt.

Route A and B: Simple Encryption (Windows tutorial)

You don’t have to have an HDD for this method and you don’t need to disable Trim on this route. Trim leaks will only be of use to forensics in detecting the presence of a Hidden Volume but won’t be of much use otherwise.

This route is rather straightforward and will just encrypt your current Operating System in place without losing any data. Be sure to read all the texts Veracrypt is showing you so you have a full understanding of what is going on.

There will be another section on creating encrypted file containers with Plausible Deniability on Windows.

Route B: Plausible Deniability Encryption with a Hidden OS (Windows only)

This is only supported on Windows.

This is only recommended on an HDD drive. This is not recommended on an SSD drive.

Your Hidden OS should not be activated (with a MS product key). Therefore this route will recommend and guide you through a full clean installation that will wipe everything on your laptop.

Read the Veracrypt Documentation (Process of Creation of Hidden Operating System part) and (Security Requirements and Precautions Pertaining to Hidden Volumes).

This is how your system will look after this process is done:

As you can see this process requires you to have two partitions on your hard drive from the start.

This process will do the following:

Mandatory if you have an SSD drive and you still want to do this against the recommendation: Disable SSD Trim in Windows229 (again this is NOT recommended at all as disabling Trim in itself is highly suspicious).Also as mentioned earlier, disabling Trim will reduce the lifetime of your SSD drive and will significantly impact its performance over time (your laptop will become slower and slower over several months of use until it becomes almost unusable, you will then have to clean the drive and re-install everything). But you have to do it to prevent data leaks230 that could allow forensics to defeat your plausible deniability231232. The only way around this at the moment is to have a laptop with a classic HDD drive instead.

Step 1: Create a Windows 10 install USB key

See “Appendix C: Windows Installation Media Creation” and go with the USB key route.

Step 2: Boot the USB key and start the Windows 10 install process (Hidden OS)
Step 3: Privacy Settings (Hidden OS)

See “Appendix B: Windows Additional Privacy Settings”

Step 4: Veracrypt installation and encryption process start (Hidden OS)

Remember to read

Do not connect this OS to your known Wi-Fi. You should download Veracrypt installer from a different computer and copy the installer here using an USB key.

Step 5: Reboot and boot the USB key and start the Windows 10 install process again (Decoy OS)

Now that the Hidden OS is fully installed, you will need to install a Decoy OS.

Step 6: Privacy settings (Decoy OS)

See “Appendix B: Windows Additional Privacy Settings”

Step 7: Veracrypt installation and encryption process start (Decoy OS)

Now we will encrypt the Decoy OS:

Step 8: Test your setup (Boot in Both)

Time to test your setup.

Step 9: Changing the decoy data on your Outer Volume safely

Before going to next step, you should learn the way to mount your Outer Volume safely for writing content on it. This is also explained in this official Veracrypt Documentation

You should do this from a safe trusted place.

Basically you’re going to mount your Outer Volume while also providing the Hidden Volume passphrase within the Mount Options to protect the Hidden Volume from being overwritten. Veracrypt will then allow you write data to the Outer volume without risking overwriting any data on the Hidden Volume.

This operation will not actually mount the Hidden Volume and should prevent the creation of any forensic evidence that could lead to the discovery of the Hidden OS. However while you are performing this operation, both passwords will be stored in your RAM and therefore you could still be susceptible to a Cold-Boot Attack. To mitigate this, be sure to have the option to encrypt your RAM too.

Step 10: Leave some forensics evidence of your outer Volume (with the decoy Data) within your Decoy OS

We have to make the Decoy OS as plausible as possible. We also want your adversary to think you’re not that smart.

Therefore it’s important to voluntarily leave some forensic evidence of your Decoy Content within your Decoy OS. This evidence will let forensic examiners see that you mounted your Outer Volume frequently to access its content.

Here are good tips to leave some forensics evidence:

Do not put anything suspicious on the Decoy OS such as:


Remember that you will need valid excuses for this plausible deniability scenario to work:

Take some time to read again the “Possible Explanations for Existence of Two Veracrypt Partitions on Single Drive” of the Veracrypt documentation here

Be careful:

Virtualbox on your Host OS:

This step and the following steps should be done from within the Host OS. This can either be your Host OS with simple encryption (Windows/Linux/MacOS) or your Hidden OS with plausible deniability (Windows only).

In this route, we will make extensive use of the free Oracle Virtualbox234 software. This is a virtualization software in which you can create Virtual Machines that emulate a computer running a specific OS (if you want to use something else like Xen, Qemu, KVM or VMWARE, feel free to do so but this part of the guide covers Virtualbox only for convenience).

You should be aware that Virtualbox is not the best virtualization software in terms of security and some of the reported issues235 have not be completely fixed to this date236 and if you’re using Linux with a bit more technical skills, you should consider using KVM instead by following the guide available at Whonix here

Some steps should be taken

All your sensitive activities will be done from within a client Virtual Machine running Windows 10 Pro (not Home this time) or Linux.

This has a few advantages that will greatly help you remain anonymous:

There will be two possibilities here, one without a cash-paid VPN and one with added cash-paid VPN.

As you can see in this illustration, if your cash-paid VPN is compromised by an adversary (despite their privacy statement and no-logging policies), they will only find an anonymous cash-paid account connecting to their services from a Tor Exit node.

If an adversary somehow manages to compromise the Tor network, they will only reveal the IP of a random public Wi-Fi that is not tied to your identity.

If an adversary somehow compromises your VM OS (with a malware or exploit for instance), they will be trapped within the internal Network of Whonix and should be unable to reveal the IP of the public Wi-Fi.

This other illustration shows the other possibility without a cash-paid VPN. It’s very similar but has one less defense layer. If the Tor network is compromised by a Global/State actor, then you will be likely de-anonymized quickly.

Unfortunately, using Tor alone will raise the suspicion of many platforms. You will face many hurdles (captchas, errors, difficulties signing-up) if you use Tor directly.

For these reasons, I strongly recommend the first option using a cash-paid VPN over Tor solution.

This multi-layered approach should greatly reduce the odds of your adversaries being able to de-anonymize you easily.

You might be wondering: Well what about using Tor over VPN instead of VPN over Tor? Well this is not recommended because:

This route will use Virtualization and Whonix237 as part of the anonymization process. Whonix is a Linux distribution composed of two Virtual Machines:

This guide will therefore propose 2 flavors of this route:

You will be able to decide which flavor to use based on my recommendations. I strongly recommend the second one.

Whonix is well maintained and has extensive documentation.

A note on Virtualbox Snapshots:

Later on you will create and run several Virtual Machines within Virtualbox for your sensitive activities. Virtualbox provides a feature called “Snapshots”238 that allow for saving the state of a VM at any point in time. If for any reason later you want to go back to that state, you can restore that snapshot at any moment.

I recommend that you do make use of this feature by creating a snapshot after the initial installation / update of each VM. This snapshot should be done before their use for any sensitive/anonymous activity.

This will allow you to turn your VMs into a kind of “Live Operating Systems” (like TAILS discussed earlier). Meaning that you will be able to erase all the traces of your activities within a VM by restoring a Snapshot to an earlier state. Of course this won’t be “as good” as TAILS (where everything is stored in memory) as there might be traces of this activity left on your hard disk. Forensics studies have shown the ability to recover data from a reverted VM239. Fortunately there will be ways to remove those traces after deletion or reverting to a previous snapshot. Such techniques will be discussed in the “Cover your tracks” section of this guide.

Get an anonymous cash-paid VPN subscription:

See Appendix D: Getting an anonymous (cash-paid) VPN subscription

Download Virtualbox and Whonix utilities:

You should download a few things within the host OS.

This will conclude the preparations and you should now be ready to start setting up the final environment that will protect your anonymity online.

Virtualbox Hardening recommendations:

For ideal security, you should follow the recommendations provided here for each Virtualbox Virtual Machine :

Finally also follow this recommendation to desync the clock you’re your VM compared to your host OS

This offset should be within a 60000 milliseconds range and should be different for each VM and here are some examples:

Also apply this fix from VirtualBox to mitigate Spectre240/Meltdown241 vulnerabilities by running this command from the VirtualBox Program Directory:

All of these steps should be taken on all Virtualbox Virtual Machines unless absolutely necessary.

Whonix Virtual Machines:

Important Note: You should also read these very good recommendations over there as most of those principles will also apply to this guide. You should also read their general documentation here which will also provide tons of advice similar to this guide.

Pick your guest workstation Virtual Machine:

You can decide if you prefer to conduct your sensitive activities from the Whonix Workstation provided in the previous section (highly recommended) or from a Custom VM that will use the Whonix Gateway like the Whonix Workstation (less secure but might be required depending on what you intend to do).

Linux Virtual Machine (Whonix or Linux):

Just use the provided Whonix Workstation VM. It’s the safest and most secure way to go in this route.

If you want additional software on the Workstation (such as another Browser), follow their guide here

Don’t forget to apply the VM hardening recommendations here: Virtualbox Hardening recommendations:

Linux (any distro):

Be careful, any customization you make to the Non-Whonix guest VMs (keyboard layout, language, time zone, screen resolution or other) could be used to fingerprint your VMs later. See

Use the Linux Distro of your choice. Personally I would recommend Ubuntu or Fedora for convenience but any other would work too.

Windows 10 Virtual Machine:

Be careful, any customization you make to the Non-Whonix guest VMs (keyboard layout, language, time zone, screen resolution or other) could be used to fingerprint your VMs later. See

Using Whonix will require more skills on your side as it is a Linux distribution. You will also encounter more difficulties if you intend to use specific software that might be harder to use on Whonix. Setting up a VPN over Tor on Whonix will also be much more complicated than on Windows as well.

Windows 10 ISO download:

See “Appendix C: Windows Installation Media Creation” and go with the ISO route.

Network Settings:

Every time you will power on this VM in the future, make sure you change its Ethernet Mac Address before each boot. You can do this in Virtualbox > Settings > Network > Advanced > Click the refresh button next to the MAC address. You can only do this while the VM is powered off.

Choose a browser within the VM:

This time, I will recommend Brave browser instead of Tor Browser. The reasons are:

But again, if you are extra paranoid and want to use Tor Browser and have “Tor over VPN over Tor”, you should skip this step and go with Tor Browser within the VM as well.

If you want to use Brave:

Additional Privacy settings in Windows 10:

See “Appendix B: (Windows Additional privacy settings)”

MacOS Virtual Machine:

Yes you can actually run MacOS within Virtualbox (on Windows/Linux/MacOS host systems) if you really want to use MacOS. You can run any version of MacOS you want but I wouldn’t recommend Big Sur due to their issues with telemetry (as stated earlier) and because it’s significantly slower than Catalina on a VM in my experience.

Therefore I would personally recommend using MacOS Catalina instead which will just run faster and until this telemetry issue gets resolved.

There are some drawbacks with running MacOS on Virtual Machines. The main one is that they don’t actually have a serial number (0 by default) and you will be unable to log-in into any Apple provided service (iCloud, iMessage…) without a genuine ID. You can set such IDs using this script: but keep in mind randomly generated IDs will not work and using the ID of someone else will definitely break their Terms of Services and could count as impersonation (and therefore could be illegal).

Note: I also ran in multiple issues with running these on AMD processors. This can be fixed so here is the configuration I used which worked fine with Catalina and Big Sur which will tell Virtualbox to emulate an Intel Processor instead:


You will need something to store your data (logins/passwords, identities and TOTP242 information).

For this purpose I strongly recommend KeePassXC because of their TOTP feature. This is the ability to create entries for 2FA243 authentication with the authenticator feature.

Remember this should ideally be installed on your Guest VM and not on your Host OS. You should never do any sensitive activities from your Host OS.

Here are the tutorials:

Test that KeePassXC is working before going to next step.

You are done and can now skip the rest to go to the “Creating your anonymous online identities” part.

VPN client installation (cash-paid):

If you decided to not use a cash-paid VPN and just want to use Tor, skip this step.

Download the VPN client installer of your cash paid VPN service and install it on the VM of your choice (Windows or Whonix).

Important note: Tor does not support UDP and you should use TCP instead with the VPN client.

In both cases you should set the VPN to start from boot and enable the “kill switch” if you can.

The Qubes Route:

As they say on their own website, Qubes OS is a reasonably secure, free, open-source and security-oriented operating system for single-user desktop computing. Qubes OS leverages and extensively uses Xen-based virtualization to allow for the creation and management of isolated compartments called qubes.

Qubes OS is different from other Linux distributions because it will make extensive use of Virtualization and Compartmentalization so that any app will run in a different VM (qube). As a bonus, Qubes OS integrates Whonix by default and allows for increased privacy and anonymity. It’s highly recommended that you document yourself over Qubes OS principles prior to going this route. Here are some recommended resources:

This OS is recommended by prominent figures such as Edward Snowden and

In itself Qubes is the best option in this guide for people who are more comfortable with Linux and tech in general. But it has some downsides such as the lack of OS wide plausible deniability and its hardware requirements and hardware compatibilities. While you can run this on 4GB of RAM as per their requirements244, the recommended RAM is 16GB. I would advise against using Qubes OS if you have less than 8GB of RAM.

The reason for this RAM requirement is that each app will run in a different VM and each of those VM will require and allocate a certain amount of memory that won’t be available for other apps. If you’re running native Windows apps within Qubes OS qubes, the ram overhead will be significant.

You should also check their hardware compatibility here before proceeding. Your mileage might vary and you might experience several issues with regards to hardware compatibility that you will have to troubleshoot and solve yourself.

I think that if you can afford it and are comfortable with the idea of using Linux, you should go with this route as it is probably the best one in terms of security and privacy. The only disadvantage of this route is that it doesn’t provide a way to enable OS wide plausible deniability191 unlike the Whonix route.


We will follow the instructions from their own guide

Secure Boot is not supported as per their FAQ: so it should be disabled in the BIOS/UEFI settings.

Lid Closure Behavior:

Unfortunately Qubes OS does not support hibernation245 which is IMHO an issue regarding cold-boot attacks. To mitigate those I highly recommend that you configure Qubes OS to shut down on any power action (power button, lid closure). You can do set this from the XFCE Power Manager. Do not use the sleep features.

Networking setup:

There will be two possibilities here, one without a cash-paid VPN and one with added cash-paid VPN.

As you can see in this illustration, if your cash-paid VPN is compromised by an adversary (despite their privacy statement and no-logging policies), an adversary will only find an anonymous cash-paid account connecting to their services from a Tor Exit node.

If they somehow also manage to compromise the Tor network, they will still only reveal the IP or a random public Wi-Fi that is not tied to your identity.

If they somehow compromise your Qube App VM (with a malware/exploit), they will be faced with an internal IP of Qube OS and shouldn’t be able to figure out the Public Wi-Fi IP.

This other illustration shows the other possibility without a cash-paid VPN. It’s very similar but has one less defense layer. If the Tor network is compromised by a Global/State actor, then you will be likely de-anonymized faster.

In addition, using Tor alone will raise the suspicion of many platforms. You will face many hurdles (captchas, errors, difficulties signing-up) if you use Tor directly.

For these reasons, I strongly recommend the cash-paid VPN over Tor solution.

This multi-layered approach should greatly reduce the odds of your adversaries being able to de-anonymize you easily.

You might be wondering: Well what about using Tor over VPN instead of VPN over Tor? Well this is not recommended because:

Connect to a Public Wi-Fi:

Update Qube OS:

After you are connected to a Wi-Fi you need to update Qube OS and Whonix. It’s important that you keep Qube OS updated at all times before conducting any sensitive activities. Especially your Browser VMs. Normally, Qube OS will warn you about updates in the upper right corner with a gear icon. As this might take a while in this case due to using Tor, you can force the process by doing the following:

Setup the VPN ProxyVM:

Skip this step if you don’t want to use a VPN and just use Tor.

This tutorial should also work with any OpenVPN provider (Mullvad, IVPN or ProtonVPN for instance).

This is based on the tutorial provided by Qube OS themselves ( If you are familiar with this process, you can follow their tutorial. Here is mine:

Create the ProxyVM:

Download the VPN configuration from your cash-paid VPN provider:

From your cash-paid VPN provider and using a Tor browser (be careful), download the necessary OpenVPN configuration files for Linux.

This can be done by using the Qubes OS integrated Tor Browser by accessing the Applications icon (upper left corner) and selecting the Disposable Tor Browser application.

When you are done downloading the configuration files within the Disposable Tor Browser (usually a zip file), copy them to your ProxyVM VPN Gateway machine (using right click on the file and send to another AppVM).

Create the ProxyVM:

<!-- -->

(This is the IP of the ProxyVM, this is not dynamic and you might need to change it at reboot)

(This is the first DNS server of your VPN provider, it shouldn’t change)

(This is the second DNS server of your VPN provider, it shouldn’t change)

(These will block outbound traffic when the VPN is down, it’s a kill switch, more information here )

(These will allow DNS request to your VPN provider DNS to resolve the name of the VPN servers in the OpenVPN configuration files)

(These will redirect all DNS requests from the ProxyVM to the VPN provider DNS servers)

Setup a disposable Browser Qube for VPN over Tor use:

You should now have a Disposable Browser VM that works with your cash-paid VPN over Tor.

This guide recommends using Brave Browser as an option because it will significantly reduce your usability issues when creating anonymous online identities. This will be explained later.

Apply the instructions from (Fedora 28+ section) and run the following commands:


You will need something to store your data (logins/passwords, identities and TOTP246 information).

For this purpose I strongly recommend KeePassXC because of their TOTP feature. This is the ability to create entries for 2FA247 authentication with the authenticator feature.

In the context of Qube OS you should probably store your sensitive information within the Domain-vault qube.

You are done and can now skip the rest to go to the “Creating your anonymous online identities” part.

Creating your anonymous online identities:

Understanding the methods used to prevent anonymity and verify identity:


Captcha144 stands for “Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart” are Turing tests248 puzzles you need to complete before accessing a form/website. You’ll mostly encounter those provided by Google (reCaptcha service249) and Cloudflare (hCaptcha250). hCaptcha is used on 15% of the internet by their own metrics251.

They’re designed to separate bots from humans but in reality are also used to deter anonymous and private users.

If you frequently use VPNs, you’ll quickly encounter many captchas everywhere. Quite often when using Tor, even if you succeed in solving all the puzzles, you’ll still be denied after solving the puzzles.

While most people think those puzzles are only about solving a little puzzle, it’s important to understand that it’s much more complex and that modern Captchas uses advanced machine learning and risk analysis algorithms to check if you’re human252:

It’s also very likely that those platforms could already reliably identify you based on the unique way you interact with those puzzles. This could work despite obfuscation of your IP address / Browser and clearing all cookies.

You will often experience several in a row and sometimes very difficult ones involving reading undecipherable characters or identifying various objects on endless pictures set. You’ll also have more captchas if you use ad blocking system or if your account was flagged for any reason for using VPNs or Tor previously.

You’ll also have (in my experience) more Captchas (reCaptcha) in Google if you don’t use Chrome. But this can be mitigated by using Chromium based browsers such as Brave. There is also a Browser extension called Buster that could help you those

As for Cloudflare (hCaptcha), you could also use their Accessibility solution here ( which would allow you to sign-up (with your anonymous identity created later) and set a cookie within your Browser that would allow you to bypass their captchas. Another solution to mitigate hCaptcha would be to use their own solution called “Privacy Pass”255 in the form of a Browser extension you could install in your VM Browser.

You should therefore deal with those carefully and force yourself to alter the way you’re solving them (speed/movement/accuracy/…) as to prevent “Captcha Fingerprinting”.

Fortunately as far as I’m aware, these are not yet officially/publicly used to de-anonymize users for third parties.

Phone verification:

Phone verification is advertised by most platforms as a way to verify you’re human. But don’t be fooled, the main reason for phone verification is not only to check if you’re human but also to be able to de-anonymize you if needed.

Most platforms (including the privacy oriented ones such as Signal/Telegram/ProtonMail will require a phone number to register and most countries now make it mandatory to submit a proof of ID to register256.

E-Mail verification:

E-Mail verification is what used to be enough but is not anymore in most cases. What is important to know is that open e-mail providers (disposable e-mail providers for instance) are flagged as much as open proxies (like Tor).

Most platforms will not allow you to register using an “anonymous” or disposable e-mail. As they won’t allow you to register using an IP address from the Tor network.

The key thing to this is that it is becoming increasingly difficult to sign-up for a free e-mail account anywhere without providing (you guessed it) … a mobile phone number. That same mobile phone number that can be used conveniently to track you down in most places.

User details checking:

Obviously, Reddit doesn’t do this (yet) but Facebook most likely does and will look for “suspicious” things in your details (which could include face recognition).

Some examples:

Proof of ID verification:

The deal-breaker in most cases. As far as I know, only Facebook and LinkedIn (outside of financial services) have requested such verifications which involves sending pictures of some form of identification (passport, national ID card, driver license …). The only way to do this would involve creating fake official documents (forgery) using some decent Photoshop skills and this might be illegal in most places.

Therefore, this is a line I’m not going to help you cross within this guide. Some services are offering such services online but I think they most likely are *bad actors* and are most likely overstepping their boundaries.

In many countries, only law enforcement, some very specific processes (such as GDPR request) and some well regulated financial services are authorized to request a proof of identification. So the legality of asking such documents is debatable and I think such platforms should not be allowed to require those.

In few countries (like Germany), this practice is illegal and online platforms such as Facebook or LinkedIn are legally bound to allow you use a pseudonym and remain anonymous.

IP Filters:

As stated before in this guide, many platforms will apply filters on the IPs of the users. Tor exit nodes are publicly listed and VPN exit servers are “well known”. There are many commercial and free services providing the ability to block those IPs with ease (hi Cloudflare).

Many platforms operators and administrators do not want traffic from these IPs as they often drive a lot of unlawful/malicious/unprofitable traffic to their platforms. Usually using the same excuses:

Fortunately, those systems are not “perfect’ and you will (still) be able to get around those restrictions by switching identities (in the case of Tor) and looking trying to access the website each time until you find an Exit Node that is not blacklisted (yet).

Sometimes some platforms will allow you to log-in with a Tor IP but not sign-up. Obviously those platforms will keep a convenient permanent log of the IP you used during sign-up. And some will keep such logs indefinitely including all the IPs you used to logging in (hi Facebook).

The tolerance is much higher with VPNs as they’re not considered “open proxies” but that won’t stop many platforms from making them hard to use by forcing increasingly difficult captchas on most VPN users.

For this reason, this guide recommends the use of VPN over Tor (and not Tor over VPN).

Browser and Device Fingerprinting:

Browser and Device147 Fingerprinting are usually integrated into the Captcha services but also in other various services.

Many platforms (like Google257) will check your browser for various capabilities and settings and block Browsers they don’t like. This is one of the reasons I recommend using Brave Browser over Tor Browser within your VM.

Here are some of the things they check within recent browsers:

Here are two services you can use to check your browser Fingerprinting:

Chances are you’ll find your browser fingerprint unique no matter what you do.

Human interaction:

Some platforms will add this as a bonus step and require you to have an actual human interaction with a customer care representative. Usually by e-mail but sometimes by chat/phone. They’ll want to verify that you exist by asking you to reply to an e-mail/chat/phone call.

It’s annoying but very easy to deal with in our case. We’re not making bots. This guide is for humans making human accounts.

User Moderation:

Many platforms will delegate and rely on their own users to moderate the others and their content. These are the “report” features that you will find on most platforms.

Getting reported thousands of times doesn’t matter when you’re Donald Trump or Kim Kardashian but if you as a sole “friendless” anonymous user gets reported even once, you might get suspended/flagged/banned instantly.

Behavioral Analysis:

This is the part where you should watch the documentary “The Social Dilemma”258 on Netflix as they cover this topic much better than anyone else IMHO.

Financial transactions:

Simple and efficient, some platforms will require than you perform some kind of financial transaction to verify your account sometimes under the pretext of verifying your age. This could be a credit card verification or a very small amount bank wire. Some will accept a donation in a main crypto like Bitcoin or Ethereum.

This is for instance now the case on YouTube for some European Users259.

Again this is just a way for them to delegate the user verification and identification on the financial system.

with some platform:

Why do this user verification ourselves when we can just ask others to deal with it?

You’ll notice this and you probably already encountered this. Some apps/platforms will ask/require you to sign-in with a well-known and well-used reputable platform instead of their own system (Sign-in with Google/Facebook/Apple/Twitter).

This option is often presented as the “default one”, hiding away the “Sign-in with e-mail and password” with clever Dark Patterns260 and unfortunately sometimes required.

This method will delegate the verification process on those platforms instead assuming that you won’t be able to create an anonymous Google/Facebook/Apple/Twitter account with ease.

Fortunately it is still possible to this day do create those.

Live Face recognition and biometrics (again):

This is a common method used on some Crypto trading platforms and some dating Apps.

Some platforms/apps will require you to take a live picture of yourself either doing something (a wink, holding an arm up …) or showing a custom piece of information (a hand written text, a passport or ID) within the picture. Sometimes the platform/app will require several pictures to increase their certainty.

This guide won’t cover this one (yet) as it’s mainly used on financial platforms (that will be able to identify you with other means anyway) and some dating apps like Tinder261. Unfortunately this method is now also sometimes being used on Facebook262 and Instagram as part of their verification methods (tho I didn’t face it yet so far).

In some cases these verifications have to be done from your Smartphone and with an “in-app” camera to prevent you from sending a previously saved (edited) image.

This verification is very hard to defeat but not impossible. A method to possibly defeat those would be to use “deep fake” technology software such as the open-source FaceSwap to generate the required verification pictures using a randomly computer generated face that would be swapped over the picture of a complicit model (or a stock photo).

Unfortunately some apps require direct access to a smartphone camera to process the verification. In that case we’ll need to find a way to do such “face swaps” on the fly using a filter and another way to feed this into the camera used by the app.

Manual reviews:

These can be triggered by any of the above and just means someone (usually specialized employees) will review your profile manually and decide if it’s real or not based on their opinion.

Pros: Usually that verdict is “final” and you’ll probably avoid further issues if you’re good.

Cons: Usually that verdict is “final” and you’ll probably be banned without any appeal possibility if you’re not good.

Getting Online:

Now that you have an understanding of all the ways you can be de-anonymized, tracked and verified. Let’s get started at evading these while remaining anonymous. Remember:

Basically trust no one and nothing (oh yeah that’s easy).

Do not start this process unless:

[Again, it is crucially important to understand that you will be unable to create most accounts without a valid phone number. Therefore, most of your anonymity depends on the anonymity of your phone number and the burner phone. If your phone number is not anonymous and your burner phone can be traced back to you, you can be de-anonymized. If you can’t get this anonymous SIM card and Burner phone, then you’ll have to restrict yourself to platforms not asking for a phone number verification.]{.ul}

Creating new identities:

This is the fun part where you will now create your identities from thin air. These identities do not exist but should be plausible and look “organic”. They should ideally have a story … a “legend” (yes this is actually the official term for this263)

I will help you bit by listing a few tips I learned while doing research over the years (disclaimer: this is based on my personal experiences alone):

Note: If you’re having trouble finding an Exit node in the country of your choice you can force using specific countries for Exit Nodes (and therefore exit countries) on Tor by editing the torrc file on the Whonix Gateway or even the Tor Browser:

Once you’re in the file, you can do the following:

Always use uppercase letter for any setting.

Please note that this is restricting Onion Routing could limit your Anonymity if you’re too restrictive. You can see a visualized list of available Exit Nodes here:

Here is the list of possibilities (this is a general list and many of those countries might not have Exit nodes at all):


Service Against ToS Require Phone Require E-Mail VPN Sign-up Tor Sign-up Captchas ID Verification Facial verification Overall difficulty
Discord No No Yes Yes Yes No No No Medium
Facebook Yes Yes Yes Maybe Maybe Yes Maybe Maybe Hard
GitHub No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Easy
Google No Maybe Maybe Yes Yes Yes No No Medium
Instagram Yes Maybe Yes Yes Yes Yes No Maybe Medium
LinkedIn Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Maybe Maybe Hard
Microsoft Yes Maybe Maybe Yes Yes Yes No No Medium
ProtonMail No Maybe Maybe Yes Yes Yes No No Medium
Reddit No No No Yes Yes No No No Easy
Telegram No Yes No Yes Yes No No No Easy
Twitter No Maybe Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Medium
4chan No No No No No Yes No No Hard


You might encounter more issues using the Web Client (Captchas). Especially with Tor Browser.

I suggest using the Discord Client app on a VM through Tor or ideally through VPN over Tor to mitigate such issues.

Steps after creating: Enable 2FA authentication with KeePassXC TOTP


“1. Who can use Facebook

When people stand behind their opinions and actions, our community is safer and more accountable. For this reason, you must:

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Facebook is one of the most aggressive platforms in identity verification and is pushing hard their “real name policy”. It is why this guide is only advised to German residents.

Over my tests tho I was able to pinpoint a few tips:

I also suspect strongly based on my test that the following points have an impact on your likelihood of being suspended over time:

If your account gets suspended, you will need to appeal the decision through a very simple form that will require you to submit a “proof of ID”. However that proof of ID verification system is more lenient than LinkedIn and will allow you send various documents which require far less Photoshop skills.

It’s also possible that they ask you to take a selfie video or picture making certain gestures to prove your identity. If that’s the case, I’m afraid it’s a dead end for now.

If you do file an appeal, you will have to wait for Facebook to review it (I don’t know if this is automatic or human) and you will have to wait and hope for them to unsuspend your account.


GitHub is straightforward and requires no phone number.

Just Sign-up with e-mail and password and enable two-factor authentication (TOTP in KeePassXC). By default your e-mail will be private.

Be sure to go into Settings > E-Mail and make your e-mail private as well as block any push that would reveal your e-mail.


ProtonMail is good … but to appear less suspicious, it’s just better to also have a Google Mail account.

As ProtonMail, Google will also most likely require a phone number during sign-up as part of their verification process. However contrary to ProtonMail, Google will store that phone number during the sign-up process and will also limit the amount of accounts that can be created during the sign-up267268.

From my experience during my research, this count is limited to 3 accounts / phone number. If you are unlucky with your number (if it was previously used by another mobile user), it might be less.

You should therefore use again your burner phone and pre-paid SIM card to create the account. Don’t forget to use the identity details you made up earlier (birthdate). When the account is created, please do take some time to do the following:

Keep in mind that there are different algorithms in place to check for weird activity. If you receive any mail (on ProtonMail) prompting about a Google Security Warning. Click it and Click the button to say “Yes it was me”. It helps.

Do not use that account for “sign-up with Google” anywhere unless necessary.

Be extremely careful if you decide to use the account for Google activities (such as Google Maps reviews or YouTube Comments) as those can easily trigger some checks (Negative reviews, Comments breaking Community Guidelines on YouTube).

If your account gets suspended 269 (this can happen on sign-up, after signing-up or after using it in some Google services), you can still get it unsuspended by submitting270 an appeal/verification (which will again require your Phone number and possibly an e-mail contact with Google support with the reason). Suspension of the account does not disable the e-mail forwarding but suspended account will be deleted after a while.

After suspension, if your Google account is restored, you should be fine.

If your account gets banned, you will have no appeal and the forwarding will be disabled. Your phone number will be flagged and you won’t be able to use it to sign-up on a different account. Be careful.


“You can't impersonate others or provide inaccurate information. You don't have to disclose your identity on Instagram, but you must provide us with accurate and up to date information (including registration information). Also, you may not impersonate someone you aren't, and you can't create an account for someone else unless you have their express permission.” But this clause of their TOS is illegal in Germany (see beginning of this guide).

It’s also possible that they ask you to take a selfie video or picture making certain gestures to prove your identity (within the app or through an e-mail request). If that’s the case, I’m afraid it’s a dead end for now.

It’s no secret that Instagram is part of Facebook however it’s more lenient than Facebook when it comes to user verification. It’s quite unlikely you’ll get suspended or banned after signing-up. But it could help.

For instance I noticed that you’ll have less issues creating a Facebook account if you already have a valid Instagram account. You should always create an Instagram account before attempting Facebook.

Unfortunately there are some limitations when using the web version of Instagram. For instance you won’t be able to enable Authenticator 2FA from the web for a reason I don’t understand.

After sign-up, do the following:


” To use the Services, you agree that: (1) you must be the “Minimum Age” (described below) or older; (2) you will only have one LinkedIn account, which must be in your real name; and (3) you are not already restricted by LinkedIn from using the Services. Creating an account with false information is a violation of our terms, including accounts registered on behalf of others or persons under the age of 16. “

But this clause of their TOS is illegal in Germany (see beginning of this guide).

LinkedIn is far less aggressive than twitter but will nonetheless require a valid e-mail (preferably again your Gmail) and a phone number in most cases (tho not always).

LinkedIn however is relying a lot on reports and user/customer moderation. You should not create a profile with an occupation inside a private corporations or a small startup company. The company employees are monitoring LinkedIn activity and receive notifications when new people join. They can then report your profile as fake and your profile will then be suspended or banned pending appeal.

LinkedIn will then require you go through a verification process that will unfortunately require you to send an ID proof (identity card, passport, driver license). This ID verification is processed by a company called Jumio271 that specializes in ID proofing. This is most likely a dead end as this would force you to develop some strong Photoshop skills.

Instead you are far less likely to be reported if you just stay vague (say you’re a student/intern/freelance) or pretend you work for a large public institution that is too large for anyone to care of check.

As with Twitter and google, you should do the following after signing-up:


“i. Creating an Account. You can create a Microsoft account by signing up online. You agree not to use any false, inaccurate or misleading information when signing up for your Microsoft account.” But this clause of their TOS is illegal in Germany (see beginning of this guide).

So yes it’s still possible to create an MS account without a phone number and using Tor or VPN but you might have cycle through a few exit nodes to achieve this.

After signing-up you should setup 2FA authentication within security and using KeePassXC TOTP.


You obviously need an e-mail for your online identity and disposable e-mails are pretty much banned everywhere.

ProtonMail is a free e-mail provider based in Switzerland that advocates security and privacy.

They’re recommended by privacytools.io272. Their only apparent issue is that they do require (in most cases) a phone number or another e-mail address for registration (when you try to register from a VPN or Tor at least).

They claim they do not store/link the phone/e-mail associated with the registration but only store a hash that is not linked to the account273. As long as their claim is true and the hash is not linked to your account, and that you followed my guide regarding the Burner phone and the pre-paid SIM card, you should be safe from tracking.

Create this e-mail account first using the burner phone as verification if necessary.

When you’re done creating the account, please go into the settings and enable 2FA (Two Factor Authentication). You will use KeePassXC TOTP feature (create a new entry “Identity ProtonMail TOTP” and just use the TOTP menu to set it up). Save the rescue codes within your KeePassXC entry.

This e-mail account will be used in the next step for creating a Google/Gmail account.


Reddit is simple. All you need to register is a valid username and a password. Normally they don’t even require an e-mail (you can skip the e-mail when registering leaving it blank).

You should still enable 2FA in the settings after signing-up. I had no issues whatsoever signing-up over Tor or VPN besides the occasional Captchas.


Telegram is quite straightforward and you can download their portable Windows app to sign-up and login.

It will require a phone number (that can only be used once) and nothing else.

In most cases I had no issues whether it was over Tor or VPN but I had a few cases where my telegram account was just banned for violating terms of services (not sure which one?). This again despite not using them for anything.

They provide an appeal process through e-mail but I had no success with getting any answer.

Their appeal process is just sending an e-mail to stating your phone number and issue and hope they answer.

After signing-up you should do the following:


Twitter is extremely aggressive in preventing anonymity on their network. You should sign-up using e-mail and password (not phone) and not using “Sign-in with Google”. Use your Gmail as the e-mail address.

More than likely, your account will be suspended immediately during the sign-up process and will require you to complete a series of automated tests to unlock. This will include a series of captchas, confirmation of your e-mail and twitter handle or other information. In some cases, it will also require your phone number.

In some cases, despite you selecting a text verification, Twitter verification system will call the phone no matter what. In that case you’ll have to pick up and actually hear the verification code. I suspect this is another method of preventing automated systems and malicious users from selling text receiving services over the internet.

Twitter will store all this information and link it to your account including your IP, e-mail and phone number. You will not be able that phone number to create a different account.

Once the account is restored, you should take some time to do the following:

After about a week, you should check the twitter again and the chances are quite high that it will be suspended again for “suspicious activity” or “violating community guidelines” despite you not using it at all (not even a single tweet/follow/like/retweet or DM) but this time by another system. I call this the “Double tap”.

This time you will need to submit an appeal using a form274, provide a good reason and wait for the appeal to be processed by Twitter. During that process, it’s possible that you will receive an e-mail (on ProtonMail) asking you to reply to a customer service ticket to prove that you do have access to your e-mail and that it’s you. This will be directed toward your Gmail address but will arrive on your ProtonMail.

Obviously do not reply from ProtonMail as this will raise suspicions, you have to sign-in into Gmail (unfortunately) and compose a new mail from there copy pasting the E-Mail, Subject and Content from ProtonMail. As well as a reply confirming you have access to that e-mail.

After a few days, your account should get unsuspended “for good”. I had no issues after that but keep in mind they can still ban your account for any reason if you violate the community guidelines. The phone number and e-mail will then be flagged and you will have no other option but to get a new identity with a new number to sign-up again. Don’t use this account for trolling.


4chan is 4chan … This guide won’t explain 4chan to you. As far as I know, this guide will be of very little help to you if you intend to post to 4chan anonymously. They block Tor exit nodes and VPN IP ranges. It’s very unlikely you’ll manage to use any of those to post to 4chan using this guide. But it will help you browse 4chan anonymously.

You’re going to have to find a different way to post there using at least seven proxies275 that are not known by 4chan blocking system.

Crypto Wallets:

Use any crypto wallet app within the Windows Virtual Machine. But be careful not to transfer anything toward an Exchange or a known Wallet. Crypto is in most case NOT anonymous and can be traced back to you when you buy/sell any.

Ideally, you should find a way to buy/sell crypto with cash from an unknown person.

What about those mobile only apps (WhatsApp/Signal):

There are only three ways of securely using those anonymously (that I would recommend). Using a VPN on your phone is not among those ways. All of those are unfortunately “tedious” to say the least.

There is no way to reliably set this multi-layered connectivity approach easily on an Android phone (it’s not even possible on IOS as far as I know). By reliable I mean being sure that the smartphone won’t leak anything such as geolocation or anything else from booting up to shutting down.

Anything else:

You should use the same logic and security for any other platform that with these mentioned in this guide.

It should work in most cases with most platforms. The hardest platform to use with full anonymity is Facebook.

This will obviously not work with Banks and most Financial platforms (such as PayPal or Crypto Exchanges) requiring actual real official and existing identification. This guide won’t help you there as this would actually be illegal in most places.

Maintenance tasks:

You should sign-up carefully into your accounts from time to time to keep them alive.

Check your e-mail regularly for security checks and any other account notification.

Backing-up your work securely:

Do not ever upload encrypted file containers with plausible deniability (hidden containers within them) to most cloud services (ICloud, Google Drive, OneDrive, Dropbox) without safety precautions. This is because most cloud services keep backups/versioning of your files and such backups/versioning of your encrypted containers can be used for differential analysis to prove the existence of a hidden container.

Instead this guide will recommend other methods of backing up your stuff safely.

Offline Backups:

These backups can be done on an external hard drive or an USB key. Here are the various possibilities.

Selected Files Backups:


For these back-ups, you’ll need an USB key or an external hard drive with enough capacity to store the files you want to back-up.


For this purpose I will recommend the use of Veracrypt on all platforms (Linux/Windows/MacOS) for convenience/security and portability.

Normal File containers:

The process is fairly simple and all you’ll need is to follow Veracrypt tutorial here:

In this container, you can then store sensitive data manually and or use any backup utility you want to backup files from the OS to that container.

You can then store this container anywhere safe.

Hidden File containers with plausible deniability:

Coming soon

Full Disk/System Backups:

TLDR version: Just use Clonezilla as it worked reliably and consistently with all my tests on all operating systems except for Macs where you should probably use native utilities (Time Machine/Disk utility instead) to avoid compatibility issues. Do not backup a partition containing a hidden OS in case you use Plausible Deniability.

You will have two options here:

I made extensive testing using live backups utilities (Macrium Reflect, EaseUS Todo Reflect, Déjà Dup…) and personally I don’t think it’s worth it. Instead I would recommend that you periodically back-up your system with a simple Clonezilla image. It’s much easier to perform, much easier to restore and usually works reliably without issues in all cases. And contrary to many beliefs, it’s not that slow with most backups taking about an hour depending on the speed of your destination media.

For backing up single files while you work, I recommend using file containers or encrypted media directly and manually as explained in the previous section.


You will need a separate external drive with at least the same or more free space available than your source disk. If your Laptop has a 250GB disk. You will need at least 250GB of free disk space for the full image backup. Sometimes this will be reduced significantly with compression by the backup utility but as a safety rule you should have at least the same or more space on your backup drive.

Some general warnings and considerations:


Ubuntu (or any other distro of choice):

I will recommend the use of the open-source Clonezilla utility for convenience and reliability but there are many other native Linux utilities and methods you could use for this purpose.

So you should follow the steps in Appendix F: Clonezilla.


Qubes OS recommends using their own utility for backups as documented here . But I think it’s just a hassle and provides limited added value unless you just want to back-up a single Qube. So instead I’m also recommending just making a full image with Clonezilla which will remove all the hassle and bring you back a working system in a few easy steps.

So you should follow the steps in Appendix F: Clonezilla.


I will only recommend the use of the open-source and free Clonezilla utility for this purpose. There are commercial utilities that offer the same functionality but I don’t see any advantage in using any of them vs Clonezilla.

Some warnings:

Follow the steps in Appendix F: Clonezilla


I would recommend just using the native Time Machine backup with encryption (and a strong passphrase that could be the same as your OS) as per the guides provided at Apple: and

So plug in an external drive and it should prompt you to use it as a Time Machine backup.

You should however consider formatting this drive as exFAT to that it’s also usable by other OSes conveniently (Windows/Linux) without added software using this guide:

It’s just simpler and will work online while you work. You’ll be able to recover your data on any other Mac from the recovery options and you’ll be also able to use this disk for backing up other devices.

It’s not impossible to also use Clonezilla to clone your Mac Hard Drive but it could bring hardware compatibility issues and probably won’t add much in terms of security. So for MacOS I’m not specifically recommending Clonezilla.

Online Backups:

Coming soon

Covering your tracks:

Understanding HDD vs SSD:

If you intent to wipe your whole HDD laptop, the process is rather simple and straightforward. The data is written at a precise location on a magnetic (hard) platter (why it’s called a hard drive) and your OS knows precisely where it is on the platter, where to delete it and where to overwrite it for secure deletion using simple processes (like just overwriting that location over and over until no traces are left).

On the other hand, if you’re using an SSD drive, the process is not as simple as the drive uses several internal mechanisms to extent its lifespan and performance. Three of those processes are of particular interest when it comes to us in this guide.


These drives use a technique called wear leveling279. At a high level, wear leveling works as follows. The space on every disk is divided into blocks that are themselves divided into pages, kind of like the chapters in a book are made of pages. When a file is written to disk, it’s assigned to a certain set of pages and blocks. If you wanted to overwrite the file in an HDD, then all you would have to do is tell the disk to overwrite those blocks. But in SSDs and USB drives, erasing and re-writing the same block can wear it out. Each block can only be erased and rewritten a limited number of times before that block just won’t work anymore (the same way if you keep writing and erasing with a pencil and paper, eventually the paper might rip and be useless). To counteract this, SSDs and USB drives will try to make sure that the amount of times each block has been erased and rewritten is about the same, so that the drive will last as long as possible (thus the term wear leveling). As a side effect, sometimes instead of erasing and writing the block a file was originally stored on, the drive will instead leave that block alone, mark it as invalid, and just write the modified file to a different block. This is kind of like leaving the chapter in the book unchanged, writing the modified file on a different page, and then just updating the book’s table of contents to point to the new location. All of this occurs at a very low level in the electronics of the disk, so the operating system doesn’t even realize it’s happened. This means, however, that even if you try to overwrite a file, there’s no guarantee the drive will actually overwrite it, and that’s why secure deletion with SSDs is so much harder.

Wear-leveling alone can therefore be seen as a disadvantage for security and an advantage for adversaries such as forensics examiners. This feature makes classic “secure deletion” counter-productive and useless and is why this feature was removed on some Operating Systems like MacOS (a as from version 10.11 El Capitan) where you could enable it before on the Recycle Bin.

Most of those old secure deletion utilities were written with HDD in mind and have no control over wear-leveling and are completely pointless when using an SDD. Avoid them on an SSD drive.

Trim Operations:

So what now? Well here come the Trim225280 operation. When you delete data on your SDD, your OS should support what is called a Trim operation command and could (should) issue this Trim command to the SSD drive. This Trim command will then let know the SSD drive controller that there are pages within blocks containing data which are now free to be actually really deleted without deleting anything itself.

Trim should be enabled by default on all modern Operating Systems detecting an SSD drive covered in this guide (MacOS, Windows 10, Ubuntu, Qubes OS…).

If Trim operations are not done regularly (or at all), then the data is never deleted pro-actively and at some point all the blocks and pages will be occupied by data. Your OS won’t see this and will just see free space as you delete files but your SSD controller will not (this is called Write Amplification281). This will then force the SSD controller to erase those pages and blocks on the fly which will reduce the write performance. This is because while your OS/SSD can write data to any free page in any bock, erasure is only possible on entire blocks therefore forcing your SSD to perform many operations to write new data. Overwriting is just not possible. This will defeat the wear-leveling system and cause performance degradation off SSD over time. Every time you delete a file on an SSD, your OS should issue a Trim command along with the deletion to let the SSD controller know the pages containing the file data are now free for deletion.

So Trim itself does not delete any data but just marks it for deletion. Data deleted without using Trim (if Trim has been disabled/blocked/delayed for instance) will still be deleted at some point by the SSD garbage collection or if you want to overwrite what the OS sees at free space. But it might stick around for a bit longer than if you use Trim.

Here is an illustration from Wikipedia showing how it works on an SSD drive:

As you can see in the above illustration, data (from a file) will be written to the 4 first pages of Block X. Later new data will be written to the remaining pages and the data from the first files will be marked as invalid (for instance by a Trim operation when deleting a file). As explained on; the erase operation can only be done on entire blocks (and not on single pages).

In addition to marking files for deletion (on reputable SSD drives) Trim usually makes those unreadable using a method called “Deterministic Read After Trim” or “Deterministic Zeroes After Trim”. This means that if an adversary tries to read data from a trimmed page/block and somehow manages to disable garbage collection, the controller will not return any meaningful data.

Trim is your ally and should always be enabled when using an SSD drive and should offer sufficient reasonable protection. And this is also the reason you should not use Veracrypt Plausible deniability on a Trim enabled SSD as this feature is incompatible with Trim282.

Garbage Collection:

Garbage collection283 is an internal process running within your SSD drive that looks for data marked for erasure. This process is done by the SSD controller and you have no control over it. If you go back to the illustration above, you will see that Garbage collection is the last step and will notice that some pages are marked for deletion in a specific block, then copy the valid pages (not marked for deletion) to a different free destination block and then will be able to erase the source block entirely.

Garbage collection in itself does NOT require Trim to function but it will much faster and more efficient if Trim is performed. Garbage collection is one of the processes that will actually erase data from your SSD drive permanently.


So the fact is that it’s very very unlikely284285 for a forensic examiner to be able to recover data from a Trim enabled SSD but it’s not completely impossible either286287288 if they’re fast enough and have access to extensive equipment and skills.

How to securely wipe your whole Laptop if you want to erase everything:

So you want to be sure. In order to achieve 100% secure deletion on an SSD drive, we will need to use specific SDD techniques. If you’re using an HDD drive, skip this part and go to your OS of choice:

Obviously for maximum security, Sanitize type options should be preferred. Unfortunately are no free easy (bootable with a menu) all-in-one tools available and you’ll be left with either going with drive manufacturers provided tools, the free manual hdparm289 utility or going with a commercial tool such as PartedMagic290 or Blancco291.

Lastly, you could also wipe all your SSD data by using a simple wipe and re-installing the OS of your choice and again performing a new full disk encryption on the SSD in question. This should also provide the same effect as a crypto erase.

This guide will therefore recommend the use of the free utility hdparm using a GParted292 boot USB.

Note: Before proceeding, you should check your BIOS as some will offer a built-in tool to securely erase your drive. If this is available, you should use that and the following steps won’t be necessary. This is for instance the case with some recent Lenovo and Asus laptops. Check this before proceeding to avoid the hassle. If such a tool is available from your BIOS and you’re using an SSD, please look for ATA Secure Erase in the options as explained above. Other methods (wipe and passes) are not recommended on SSDs and are only suitable for HDDs.


System/Internal SSD:

External SSD:

First please see Appendix L: Considerations for using external SSD drives.

If your USB controller and USB SSD disk supports Trim and ATA secure erase, wipe them using hdparm using the same method as the System Disk above except you won’t install Linux on it obviously.

If it doesn’t support Trim and or ATA secure erase, you should (not securely) wipe the drive normally (without passes like an HDD) and re-encrypt it completely using your utility of choice (LUKS or Veracrypt for instance). The full disk re-encryption process will overwrite the entirety of the SSD disk and should ensure a secure wipe.

Alternatively, you could also (not securely) wipe the disk normally and then fill it completely with pseudorandom data which should also ensure secure deletion (this can be done with BleachBit or from the command line using secure-delete using this tutorial

System HDD:

External/Secondary HDD and Thumb Drives:

I recommend using dd or shred for this purpose.


Unfortunately you won’t be able to wipe your Host OS using the Microsoft built-in tools within the settings. This is because your bootloader was modified with Veracrypt and will make the operation fail. In addition, this method would not be effective with an SSD drive.

System/Internal SSD:

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External SSD:

First please see Appendix L: Considerations for using external SSD drives.

If your USB controller and USB SSD disk supports Trim and ATA secure erase, you can wipe them using GParted or possibly using the manufacturer tools from the previous section.

If you’re not sure about the Trim support on your USB disk, (not securely) wipe it normally (simple quick format will do) and then encrypt the disk again using Veracrypt or alternatively Bitlocker. The full disk re-encryption process will overwrite the entirety of the SSD disk and should ensure a secure wipe.

Alternatively, you could also (not securely) wipe the disk normally and then fill it completely with pseudorandom data which should also ensure secure deletion (this can be done with BleachBit or PrivaZer free space erase options). See Extra Tools Cleaning:.

System HDD:

External/Secondary HDD and Thumb Drives:

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System/Internal SSD:

Unfortunately the MacOS Recovery disk utility will not be able to perform a secure erase of your SSD drive as stated in Apple documentation

In most cases, if your disk was encrypted with Filevault and you just perform a normal erase, it should be “enough”. You should then re-install MacOS again and re-encrypt it with Filevault again after re-installing. This should perform a crypro erase by overwriting your previous install and encryption. This method will be quite slow unfortunately.

If you want to do faster secure erase (or have no time to perform a re-install and re-encryption). Please try using the method described in Appendix E: Using Gparted and hdparm to Securely Wipe an SSD drive. (This will not work on M1 Macs). Be careful tho. This can erase your recovery partition and needed to reinstall MacOS.

External SSD:

First please see Appendix L: Considerations for using external SSD drives.

If your USB controller and USB SSD disk supports Trim and ATA secure erase, and if Trim is enabled on the disk by MacOS, you can just wipe the whole disk normally and data should not be recoverable on recent disks. You should also be able to use the hdparm method using GParted from the previous section.

If you’re not sure about Trim support or still want more certainty, you can (not securely) wipe it using MacOS disk utility before fully re-encrypting them again using these two tutorials from Apple:

The full disk re-encryption process will overwrite the entirety of the SSD disk and should ensure a secure wipe.

External HDD and Thumb Drives:

Follow this tutorial: and use the secure erase option from Disk Utility which should still work on HDD and Thumb drives.

How to securely delete specific files/folders on your HDD/SDD and Thumb drives:

The same principles from the previous chapters apply to this one. The same issues arise too.

With an HDD drive, you can securely delete files by just deleting it and then apply one of more “passes” to overwrite the data in question. This can be done with many utilities on all OSes.

With an SSD drive however, again everything becomes a bit complicated because you’re never sure anything is really deleted due to wear leveling, reliance on the Trim operation and garbage collection of the drive. An adversary that has the decryption key of your SDD (whether it’s LUKS, Filevault 2, Veracrypt or Bitlocker) could unlock your drive and then attempt recovery using classic recovery utilities293 and could succeed if the data wasn’t trimmed properly. But this is again highly unlikely.

Therefore again the only way to be 100% sure a file is securely deleted from your unlocked encrypted SDD is to again overwrite all the free space after deletion of the files in question. But I think this is probably overkill and not necessary and a simple trim would suffice.

Remember tho that no matter the deletion method you use for any file on any medium (HDD drive, SDD, USB Thumb drive). It will probably leave other traces (logs, indexing, shellbags …) within your system and those traces will also need to be cleaned. Also remember that your drives should be fully encrypted and so this is most likely an extra measure. More on that later in the

First please see Appendix L: Considerations for using external SSD drives.If Trim is supported and enabled by MacOS for your external SSD drive. There should be no issue in securely deleting data. Additionally, you could also force a Trim using the Linux tool blkdiscard ( which you can install using Homebrew (first install Homebrew and then run brew install util-linux) If Trim is not supported, you might have to ensure secure data deletion by:Filling up all the free space after any deletion.Decrypt and Re-encrypt the disk with a different key after each deletion.Some additional measures against forensics: section.


Internal/External HDD or a Thumb Drive:

Please refer to Appendix I: Windows Cleaning Tools and pick an utility before proceeding.

The process is very simple depending on the tool you picked from the Appendix:

In the case of USB thumb drives, consider wiping free space using one of the above utilities after file deletion or wiping them completely using Eraser / KillDisk as instructed previously. Or

External SSD drive:

First please see Appendix L: Considerations for using external SSD drives.

If Trim is supported and enabled by Windows for your external SSD drive. There should be no issue in securely deleting data normally just with normal delete commands. Additionally, you could also force a Trim using the Windows native Optimize tool (see Appendix I: Windows Cleaning Tools)

If Trim is not supported or you’re not sure, you might have to ensure secure data deletion by:

Internal SSD drive:

At this stage, and just delete the file permanently (empty the recycle bin) and trim/garbage collection will do the rest. This should be sufficient. Additionally, you could also force a Trim using the Windows native Optimize tool (see Appendix I: Windows Cleaning Tools).

If you want to do more than that, please see the

First please see Appendix L: Considerations for using external SSD drives.If Trim is supported and enabled by MacOS for your external SSD drive. There should be no issue in securely deleting data. Additionally, you could also force a Trim using the Linux tool blkdiscard ( which you can install using Homebrew (first install Homebrew and then run brew install util-linux) If Trim is not supported, you might have to ensure secure data deletion by:Filling up all the free space after any deletion.Decrypt and Re-encrypt the disk with a different key after each deletion.Some additional measures against forensics:


Internal/External HDD drive or a Thumb Drive:

External SSD drive:

First please see Appendix L: Considerations for using external SSD drives.

If Trim is supported and enabled by your Linux Distribution for your external SSD drive. There should be no issue in securely deleting data normally. Additionally, you could use the blkdiscard command to force an entire device trim as explained here:

If Trim is not supported or you want to be sure, you might have to ensure secure data deletion by:

System/Internal SSD drive:

Just permanently delete the file (and empty recycle bin) and it should be unrecoverable due to trim operations and garbage collection.

If you want to do more than that, please see the

First please see Appendix L: Considerations for using external SSD drives.If Trim is supported and enabled by MacOS for your external SSD drive. There should be no issue in securely deleting data. Additionally, you could also force a Trim using the Linux tool blkdiscard ( which you can install using Homebrew (first install Homebrew and then run brew install util-linux) If Trim is not supported, you might have to ensure secure data deletion by:Filling up all the free space after any deletion.Decrypt and Re-encrypt the disk with a different key after each deletion.Some additional measures against forensics:


System/Internal SSD drive:

Just permanently delete the file (and empty recycle bin) and it should be unrecoverable due to trim operations and garbage collection. Additionally, you could also force a Trim using the Linux tool blkdiscard ( which you can install using Homebrew (first install Homebrew and then run brew install util-linux)

If you want to do more than that, please see the

First please see Appendix L: Considerations for using external SSD drives.If Trim is supported and enabled by MacOS for your external SSD drive. There should be no issue in securely deleting data. Additionally, you could also force a Trim using the Linux tool blkdiscard ( which you can install using Homebrew (first install Homebrew and then run brew install util-linux) If Trim is not supported, you might have to ensure secure data deletion by:Filling up all the free space after any deletion.Decrypt and Re-encrypt the disk with a different key after each deletion.Some additional measures against forensics:

System/Internal, External HDD drive or a Thumb Drive:

Unfortunately Apple has removed the secure erase options from the trash bin even for HDD drives294. So you’re left with using other tools:

In the case of USB thumb drives, consider wiping them completely using Disk Utility as instructed previously.

External SSD drive:

First please see Appendix L: Considerations for using external SSD drives.

If Trim is supported and enabled by MacOS for your external SSD drive. There should be no issue in securely deleting data. Additionally, you could also force a Trim using the Linux tool blkdiscard ( which you can install using Homebrew (first install Homebrew and then run brew install util-linux)

If Trim is not supported, you might have to ensure secure data deletion by:

Some additional measures against forensics:

Note that the same SSD issue discussed in the previous section will arise here. You can never really be absolutely 100% sure your SSD data is deleted when you ask it to do so unless you wipe the whole drive using specific methods above.

I’m not aware of any 100% reliable method to selectively securely delete single files on SSD drives unless overwriting ALL the free space (which might reduce the lifespan of your SSD) after Deletion + Trim of these files. Without doing that, you’ll have to trust the SSD Trim operation which in my opinion is enough. It’s reasonable and again very unlikely that forensics will be able to restore your files after a Deletion with Trim.

In addition, most of these measures here should not be needed since your whole drive should be encrypted and therefore your data should not be accessible for forensic analysis through SSD/HDD examination anyway. So these are just “bonus measures” for weak/unskilled adversaries but the best thing to do (to be sure) is to wipe the whole drive as explained earlier.

Removing Metadata from Files/Documents/Pictures:


On Windows I would recommend this NirSoft utility that allows you to view the EXIF data of pictures Alternatively on Windows and Linux I would recommend ExifTool that allows viewing AND editing those properties

Here is a tutorial to remove metadata from a Picture using OS provided tools:

MS Office Documents:

Here is a tutorial to remove metadata from Office documents: Make sure however that you do use the latest version of Office with the latest security updates.

LibreOffice Documents:

Go to Tools > Options > Security and Check:

All-in-one Tool:

The best tool IMHO to remove metadata from various documents is the open-source mat2 recommended by privacytools.io295 ( which you can use on Linux quite easily. I never managed to make it work properly within Windows due various dependencies issues despite the provided instructions. It’s however very straightforward to install and use on Linux.

So I would suggest creating a small Debian VM within Virtualbox (behind your Whonix Gateway) which you can then use from your other VMs to analyze various files from a convenient web interface. For this see Appendix M: Creating a mat2-web guest VM for removing metadata from files.

Mat2 is also pre-installed on the Whonix Workstation VM296 and available on TAILS by default297.


TAILS is great for this, you have nothing to worry about even if you use an SSD drive. Shut it down and it’s all gone as soon as the memory decays.


Coming Soon


Coming Soon


Now that you had a bunch of activities with your VMs or Host OS, you should take a moment to cover your tracks. Most of these steps should not be undertaken on the Decoy OS in case of use of plausible deniability. This is because you want to keep decoy/plausible traces of sensible but not secret activities available for your adversary. If everything is clean then you might raise suspicion.

Diagnostic Data and Telemetry:

First let’s get rid of any diagnostic data that could still be there:

Then let’s re-randomize the MAC addresses of your Virtual Machines and the Bluetooth Address of your Host OS.

Event logs:

Windows Event logs will keep many various pieces of information that could contain traces of your activities such as the devices that were mounted (including Veracrypt NTFS volumes for instance221), your network connections, app crash information and various errors. It’s always best to clean those up regularly. Do not do this on the Decoy OS.

Veracrypt History:

By default, Veracrypt saves a history of recently mounted volumes and files. You should make sure Veracrypt never saves History. Again do not do this on the Decoy OS if you’re using plausible deniability for the OS. We need to keep the history of mounting the decoy Volume as part of the plausible deniability.

Now you should clean the history within any app that you used including Browser history, Cookies, Saved Passwords, Sessions, and Form History.

Wi-Fi History:

Now it’s turn to clear the history of the Wi-Fi you connect to. Unfortunately Windows keeps storing a list of past Networks in the registry even if you “forgot” those in the Wi-Fi settings. As far as I know, no utilities clean those yet (BleachBit or PrivaZer for instance) so you’ll have to do it the manual way:


As explained earlier, Shellbags are basically histories of accessed volumes/files on your computer. Remember that shellbags are very good sources of information for forensics216 and you need to clean those. Especially if you mounted any “hidden volume” anywhere. Again you shouldn’t do this on the Decoy OS.

Extra Tools Cleaning:

After cleaning those previous traces, you should also use third party utilities than can be used to clean various traces. These include the traces of the files/folders you deleted.

Please refer to Appendix I: Windows Cleaning Tools before continuing.


Here are the steps for PrivaZer:


Here are the steps for BleachBit:

Windows Optimize (for SSD drives):

With this Native Windows 10 utility, you can just trigger a Trim on your SSD which should be more than enough to securely clean all deleted files that somehow would have escaped Trim when deleting them.

Just open Windows Explorer, Right Click on your System Drive and click Properties. Select Tools. Click Optimize and then Optimize again. You’re done. I think that’s probably enough in my opinion.

If you really want more, please refer to the above utilities and fill up the free space.

Removing some traces of your identities on search engines and various platforms:

Chances are your actions (such as posts on various platforms, your profiles) will be indexed (and cached) by many search engines.

Contrary to popular belief, it’s possible to have some but not all of this information removed by following some steps. While this might not remove the information on the websites themselves, it will make it harder for people to find it using search engines.

You can check some useful information about how to and get delete various accounts on these websites:

When you’re done with this part, you should now handle search engines and while you may not be able to have the information deleted, you can ask them to update/remove outdated information which could then remove some cached information.


Unfortunately this will require you to have a Google account to request the update/removal (however this can be done with any Google account from anyone). There is no way around this except waiting.

Go to their “Remove outdated content from Google Search” page here: and submit a request accordingly.

If your profile/username was deleted/changed, they should re-index the content and update accordingly and remove these traces.

These requests might take several days to process. Be patient.


Unfortunately this will require you to have a Microsoft account to request the update/removal (however this can be done with any Microsoft account from any identity). There is no way around this except waiting.

Go to their “Content Removal” page here: and submit a request accordingly.

If your profile/username was deleted/changed, they should re-index the content and update accordingly and remove these traces.

This might take several days to process. Be patient.


DuckDuckGo does not store cached version of pages298 and will instead forward you to a Google/Bing cached version if available.

In addition, DuckDuckGo source most of their searches from Bing (and not google)299 and therefore removing the content from Bing should in time have it removed it from DuckDuckGo too.


Unfortunately this will require you to have a Yandex account to request removals (however this can be done with any Yandex account from any identity). There is no way around this except waiting.

Once have your Yandex account, head to the Yandex Webmaster tools and then select Tools and Delete URL

There you can input the URL that do not exist anymore if you had them deleted.

This will only work with pages that have been deleted and therefore will not work with removing cache of existing records. For that unfortunately there is no tool available to force a cache update but you can still try their feedback tool:

Search for the page that was changed (where your profile was deleted/changed) and click the arrow next to the result. Select Complain. And submit a complaint about the page not matching the search result. Hopefully this will force Yandex to re-crawl the page and re-index it after some time. This could take days or weeks.


As far as I know, there is no readily available tool to force this and you’ll have to wait for the results to get updated if there is any. If you know a way, please report this to me through the GitHub issues.

Yes Yahoo Search still exists but as per their help page , there is no way to remove information or refresh information besides waiting. This could take 6 to 8 weeks.


As far as I know, there is no readily available tool to force this unless you control the website (and do it through their webmaster tools). Therefore you’ll have to wait for the results to get updated if there is any. If you know a way, please report this to me through the GitHub issues.


As far as I know, there is no way to remove information from Wikipedia articles themselves but if you just want to remove traces of your username from it (as a user that contributed), you can do so by following these steps:

This will not remove any information about your online identities that could appear in other articles but only your own identity on Wikipedia as a user.

Internet Archive:

You can remove pages from internet archives but only if you actually own the website in question and contact them about it. Most likely you will not be able to remove archives from say “Reddit posts” or anything alike. But you could still ask and see what they answer.

As per their help page

“How can I exclude or remove my site's pages from the Wayback Machine?

You can send an email request for us to review to info\ with the URL (web address) in the text of your message.”

Some low tech old school tricks:

Hidden communications in plain sight:

You have to keep in mind that using all those security measures (encryption, plausible deniability, VPN, tor, secure operating systems …) can make you suspicious just by using them. Using could be the equivalent of stating openly “I have something to hide” to an observer which could then motivate some adversaries to investigate/survey you further.

So there are other ways you could exchange or send messages online to others in case of need without disclosing your identity or establishing direct communication with them. These have been in use by various organizations for decades and can be of help if you do not want to attract attention by using secure tech while still communicating some sensitive information without attracting attention.

A commonly used technique which combines the idea of a Dead Drop300 and Secure Communication Obfuscation301 through Steganography302 and/or Kleptography303 and has many names such as Koalang304 or “Talking Around” or even “Social Steganography”. This technique is very old and still widely used nowadays by teenagers to bypass parental control. It’s hiding in plain sight.

Here is one example if you want to let someone know something is wrong and they should go dark? That they should immediately wipe all their data, get rid of their burner phones and sensitive information?

What if you want to let someone you trust (friends, family, lawyers, journalists …) that you’re in trouble and they should look out for you?

All this without revealing the identity of the person you’re sending the message to nor disclosing the content of that message to any third party and without raising suspicions and without using any of the secure methods mentioned above.

Well you could just use any online public platform for this (Instagram, Twitter, Reddit, Any forum, YouTube …) by using in-context (of the chosen platform/media) agreed upon (between you and your contact) coded messages that only your contact would understand.

This could be a set of specific Emoji’s or a specifically worded mundane comment. Or even just a like on a specific post from a known influencer you usually watch and like. While this would look completely normal to anyone, this could in fact mean a lot to a knowledgeable reader who could then take appropriate agreed upon actions.

This is an example if you just look at my Reddit History (which I’m sure you’ll be able to find after reading this guide) and look for the following code phrase “Remember to be safe in these troubled times!”. It’s within the context of my normal use on this subreddits. It’s within the context of the post and the general context but this will also mean that you’ve read this part of the guide or anything else pre-defined (such as … “there is trouble, be safe”).

You don’t even have to go that far. A simple “Last seen” time on a specific account could be enough to trigger a message agreed upon. If your interlocutor sees that such account was online. It could mean there is an issue.

How to spot if someone has been searching your stuff:

There are some old tricks that you can use to spot if people have been messing with your stuff while you were away.

One trick for instance is very simple and just requires a wire/cable. Simply dispose objects on your desk/night table or in your drawers following a straight line. You can use a simple USB cable or charger to do this.

Draw a line with your cable and place objects along the line. When you’re back, just check those places and check if the objects are still placed along the line. This allows you not to remember precisely where your things were.

Fortunately modern technology has made this even simpler. If you suspect someone might be looking through your stuff while you’re away, you can just take a picture of the area with your phone before leaving. When you’re back, just compare the areas with your pictures and everything should be exactly where you left it. If anything moved then someone was there.

It will be very hard and time consuming for an adversary to search through your stuff and then replace it exactly as you left it with complete precision.

What if it’s a printed document or book and you want to know if someone read it? Even simpler. Just carefully make a note within the document with a pencil. And then erase it with any pencil eraser as if you wanted to correct it. The trick is to carefully leave the eraser traces/residues on the area you erased/pencil written areas and close the document. You could also take a picture of the residues before closing the document.

Most likely if someone went through your document to read it and re-placed it carefully, this residue will fall off or be moved significantly. It’s a simple old school trick that could tell you someone searched a document you had.

Some last OPSEC thoughts:

If you think you got burned:

If you have some time:

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If you have no time:

Keep in mind that many countries have specific laws to compel you to reveal your passwords that could override your “right to remain silent”. See this Wikipedia article: and this other visual resource with law references

A final editorial note:

After reading this whole guide, I hope you will have gained some additional beneficial insight about privacy and anonymity. It is clear now, in my humble opinion, that the world we live in has only few safe harbors remaining where one could have a reasonable expectation of privacy and even less so anonymity. Many will often say that 1984 by George Orwell was not meant to be an instruction book. Yet today this guide and its many references should, I hope, reveal to you how far down we are in the rabbit hole.

You should also know that most of the digital information described in lengths in this guide can be forged or tampered by a motivated adversary for any purpose. Even if you do manage to keep secrets from prying eyes, it is not impossible for anyone to fabricate anything to fit their narrative.

You should not hesitate to question this type of information from any source in this age of disinformation.

Please keep thinking for yourself and be open to critical thinking. Please keep an open mind.

“In the end the Party would announce that two and two made five, and you would have to believe it.”, George Orwell, 1984.

Appendix A: Windows Installation

This is the Windows 10 installation process that should be valid for any Windows 10 install within this guide.


DO NOT CONNECT WINDOWS TO ANY NETWORK DURING THE INSTALLATION PROCESS (This will allow us to create a Local Account and not use a Microsoft account and it will also prevent any telemetry from being sent out during the install process).

Privacy Settings:

Appendix B: Windows Additional Privacy Settings

As written earlier in this guide and as noted by Privacytools.io305, Windows 10 is a privacy nightmare. And disabling everything during and after the installation using the settings available to you is not enough. The amount of telemetry data collected by Microsoft is staggering and could defeat your attempts at keeping secrets. You will need to download and use a couple utilities to (hopefully) force Windows 10 into not sending data back to Microsoft.

Here are the steps in details:

Do these steps from a different computer in order to not connect Windows 10 to the internet before those settings are applied. You can download and copy those to the USB key (for transfer onto a Windows 10 fresh installation) or if it’s a VM, you can transfer them to the VM within Virtualbox (VM Settings > General > Advanced > Drag n Drop > Enable Host to Guest).

These measures added to the settings during installation should be hopefully sufficient to prevent Microsoft from snooping on your OS.

You will need to update and re-run W10Privacy and WindowsSpyBlocker frequently and after any Windows update as they tend to silently re-enable telemetry using those updates.

Appendix C: Windows Installation Media Creation

These are the steps to create a Windows 10 (20H2) Installation Media using this tool and instructions:

Appendix D: Getting an anonymous (cash-paid) VPN subscription

If you follow my advice, you will also need a VPN subscription but this time you will need an actually anonymous one that can’t be tied to you by the financial system. Meaning you will need to buy a VPN subscription with cash. You will later use this VPN to connect to the various services anonymously but never directly from your IP.

There are three VPN companies recommended by ( that accept cash payments: Mullvad, IVPN and ProtonVPN.

Personally I would recommend Mullvad due to personal experience.

How does this work?

Do not in any circumstance use this new VPN account unless instructed or connect to that new VPN account using your known connections. This VPN will only be used later within a Virtual Machin over the Tor Network in a secure way as we don’t trust VPN providers “no logging policies”. This VPN provider should never know your real origin IP.

Appendix E: Using Gparted and hdparm to Securely Wipe an SSD drive.

These instructions are valid for all Operating Systems:

Appendix F: Clonezilla

Each backup could take a while depending on the speed of your laptop and the speed of your external drive. In my experience, expect about 1 hour per backup depending on the drive size and the write speed of your backup media (my tests were done backing up 256GB SDDs on a USB 3.0 7200rpm HDD).

Appendix G: Diskpart

Diskpart is a Windows utility that can be used to perform various operations on your hard drive. In this case we will use Diskpart to show the Disk ID but also to change it if necessary.

This could be needed if you restore a backup on a new HDD/SDD that has an ID that differs from the one backed up and Windows could refuse to boot.

Diskpart can be run from any Windows environment using a command prompt. This includes recovery disks created by utilities such as Macrium Reflect, any Windows Installation media, EaseUS Todo Free rescue disks.

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Appendix H: Tor Browser

This guide will recommend using Tor browser within the host OS because it has the best protections by default. The only other acceptable option in my opinion would be to use Brave Browser (with a Tor tab) but keep in mind that Brave themselves recommend the use of Tor Browser if you feel your safety depends on being anonymous306: “ With Tor, Brave works hard to ensure that you’re extremely difficult to track online while providing a delightful browsing experience. But if your personal safety depends on remaining anonymous you may wish to use the Tor Browser instead. “.

This Browser on the host OS will only be used to download various utilities and will never be used for actual sensitive activities.

Go to next step and use this browser for all the next steps within the host OS unless instructed otherwise.

Appendix I: Windows Cleaning Tools

In this guide I will recommend two third native tools and also two third party tools:

This tool will cleanup a bunch of things natively. It’s not enough and I instead recommend using third party tools below to clean more stuff. PrivaZer for instance will use the disk cleanup utility directly itself and BleachBit will use its own mechanisms.

For security, this tool is very useful on SSD drives at this “Optimize” function will in fact force a Disk wide Trim operation to occur. This will most likely be more than enough to make sure any deleted data that was not trimmed before for any reason will be this time. Deleted data with Trim is very unlikely to be recovered as explained before in this guide.

Personally I prefer PrivaZer because it has more customization and smarter features but I would understand if you don’t trust them and prefer open-source software in which case I would recommend BleachBit which offers a bit less customization but similar functionalities.

Both these tools can be used for cleaning many things such as:

Both these utilities can delete files and can overwrite the free space after deletion to improve secure deletion even on SSD drives. Remember this can reduce the lifespan of your SSD drives a bit.

Appendix J: Using ShredOS to securely wipe an HDD drive:

There are several utilities that are recommend (like the old unmaintained DBAN310) or System Rescue CD ( for this but personally, I will recommend the use of ShredOS.

Feel free do go with DBAN instead if you want (using this tutorial:, the process is basically the same but will not work out of the box with UEFI laptops.

If you want to go with System-Rescue, just head to their website and follow the instructions.



Appendix K: Manufacturer tools for Wiping HDD and SSD drives:

Always check your laptop BIOS/UEFI for native utilities first.

Be sure to use the right wipe mode for the appropriate disk. Wipe and Passes are for HDD drives. There are specific options for SDD drives (such as ATA Secure Erase or Sanitize).

Tools that provide a boot disk for wiping from boot:

Tools that provide only support from running OS (for external drives).

Appendix L: Considerations for using external SSD drives

I do not recommend using external SSDs due to the uncertainty about their support for Trim, ATA Secure Erase and Sanitize options through USB 3.0 controllers. Instead I recommend using external HDD 7300rpm USB3.0 disks which can be cleaned/wiped safely and securely without hassle (albeit much slower than SSD drives).

If you really want to use an external SSD drive for sensitive storage:

Appendix M: Creating a mat2-web guest VM for removing metadata from files

Download the latest Debian stable amd64 netinst ISO from

You're done.

Now you can just start this small mat2 VM when needed, browse to it from your Guest VM and use the interface to remove any metadata from most files.

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  11. BBC News, Tor Mirror 

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  34. Wikipedia, CDN 

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  38. KUL, Encrypted DNS=⇒Privacy? A Traffic Analysis Perspective 

  39. ResearhGate, Oblivious DNS: Practical Privacy for DNS Queries 

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  54. Wikipedia, Faraday Cage, 

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  80. Wired, The Strava Heat Map and the End of Secrets 

  81. Bellingcat, How to Use and Interpret Data from Strava's Activity Map 

  82. The Guardian, Fitness tracking app Strava gives away location of secret US army bases 

  83. Telegraph, Running app reveals locations of secret service agents in MI6 and GCHQ 

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  85. Washington Post, Alexa has been eavesdropping on you this whole time 

  86. CryptoEngineering, How does Apple (privately) find your offline devices? 

  87. Apple Support 

  88. XDA, Samsung’s Find My Mobile app can locate Galaxy devices even when they’re offline 

  89. Apple Support, If your Mac is lost or stolen 

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  92. Wikipedia, RFID 

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  95. Bellingcat, Joseph Mifsud: Rush for the EXIF 

  96. Zoom Support, Adding a watermark 

  97. Zoom Support, Audio Watermark 

  98. CreativeCloud Extension, IMATAG 

  99. NexGuard, 

  100. Vobile Solutions, 

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  102. Imatag, 

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  106. IEEExplore, Spread-spectrum watermarking of audio signals 

  107. Google Scholar, source camera identification 

  108. HackerFactor Blog, Deanonymizing Tor Circuits 

  109. KU Leuven, Website Fingerprinting through Deep Learning 

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  124. Wikipedia, Sandbox 

  125. Wikipedia, CPU 

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  127. Wikipedia, AMD Platform Security Processor 

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  129. Wikipedia, IME, Assertions that ME is a backdoor 

  130. Wikipedia, IME, Disabling the ME 

  131. Libreboot, 

  132. Digi.Ninja, Jasager 

  133. Hak5 Shop, Wi-Fi Pineapple 

  134. Wikipedia, Deautentication Attack 

  135. Wikipedia, Capture Portal 

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  137. Wikipedia, Stuxnet 

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  149. Mozilla Wiki, Fingerprinting 

  150. Facebook Research, Deepface 

  151. Privacy News Online, Putting the “face” in Facebook: how Mark Zuckerberg is building a world without public anonymity 

  152. CNBC, “Facebook has mapped populations in 23 countries as it explores satellites to expand internet” 

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  154. Brown Institute, Open Source Investigation, 

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  156. Google Patent, Techniques for emotion detection and content delivery 

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  162. CNET 

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  186. Wikipedia, Warrant Canary 

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  192., TrueCrypt's Plausible Deniability is Theoretically Useless 

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  194. Wikipedia, TAILS, 

  195. Coreboot, 

  196. XKCD, Password Strength  2 3 4

  197. QubesOS FAQ, 

  198. Wikipedia, Secure Boot, 

  199. Wikipedia, Booting 

  200. Wired 

  201. Wikipedia, Virtual Machine 

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  204. Wikipedia, APNS 

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  208. Wikipedia, Bitlocker 

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  210. Wikipedia, Cold Boot Attack 

  211. CITP 2008 (

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  214. SourceForge, Veracrypt Forum 

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  216. SANS, Windows ShellBag Forensics in-depth  2 3

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  218. A forensic insight into Windows 10 Jump Lists 

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  236. Whonix Documentation, Spectre Meltdown, 

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  248. Wikipedia, Turing Test 

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  250. hCaptcha 

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  264. Whonix Documentation, 

  265. Tor Browser Documentation, 

  266. Facebook Onion Website http://facebookcorewwwi.onion 

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  270. Google, Request to restore the account 

  271. Jumio, ID verification features 

  272. Recommended E-mail Providers 

  273. ProtonMail Human Verification System 

  274. Twitter Appeal Form 

  275. KnowYourMeme, Good Luck, I'm Behind 7 Proxies 

  276. Youwave, 

  277. Bluestacks, 

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  283. Wikipedia, Garbage Collection 

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  292. Wikipedia, GParted 

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  300. Wikipedia, Dead Drop 

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  303. Wikipedia, Kleptography 

  304. Wikipedia, Koalang 

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  307., The Windows USN Journal 

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  309. SANS, Timestamped Registry & NTFS Artifacts from Unallocated Space 

  310. DBAN,